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1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic (00:09:12)
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Title:

1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic

Rights-Managed, Editorial

Location and time:

Germany, Weimar, 30-01-1933

Description:

Perhaps the greatest catalyst for the collapse of the Republic lies in the Wall Street Crash, or more correctly its aftermath. The grounds for the German recovery were overly dependent on loans from America under the Dawes and then Young plans. However, with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, America was forced to recall her debts, this directly led to the deterioration of Germany"s economy and in turn party relations in the Riechstag, a catastrophic event when a country is ruled by coalitions. Following this, Heinrich Bruning was appointed as Chancellor in March 1930; it was the deterioration of the coalition system that led to Hindenburg allowing Bruning to rule by presidential decree, known as Article 48, should he require it. This meant that the Riechstag had to merely tolerate his decrees and not support them. Yet in 1930, the Riechstag refused Bruning"s emergency measures to compensate for the failing economy, which included cutting government spending on things such as wages and welfare payments. This led to an increase on imported goods, especially food, to help German farmers and the buying up of company shares by the government to support deflation. Bruning returned the measures under Article 48 and dissolved the Riechstag; he then called an election, as he believed that it would return a majority for him. This was his first mistake, as it resulted in the Nazi party becoming the second largest party in the Riechstag; and this meant that Bruning could now only rule by decree, providing that the Social Democrats did not move against him. And Bruning knew that they would not as they were fearful of a Nazi take-over. Bruning remained in power until 1932 and by 1933 Hitler was Chancellor, yet in the 8 months between their reigns there were still to be 2 other Chancellors, von Papen and Schleicher. The extraordinary thing is, however, is the fact that both supported Hitler"s appointment and pushed Hindenburg into it, against his better judgment. It was von Papen"s belief that he could control Hitler like a puppet. This is an ideal political position, the idea is that you retain power and use somebody else as your public face. If things go badly, your own career and reputation remain intact.


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Chinese Traditional :

1932 年,20 世紀,阿道夫 · 希特勒,雅利安人,專制,Bruno Hähnel,運動,財政大臣的德國,歡呼聲,城市,共產主義者,危機、 人群、 示威、 遊行、 獨裁者、 獨裁統治,Egon 施滕格爾、 選舉、 選舉、 法西斯主義,元首,德語,德國帝國,德國,德國工人党,政府,Günther 施羅德,希特勒萬歲,興登堡,希特勒的影片片段、 大屠殺、 生存空間、 生活空間、 瑪律庫塞、 馬里昂 Dönhoff、 奮鬥、 軍事領袖,我掙扎,國家社會主義、 國家社會主義納粹,納粹遊行,納粹党、 納粹主義、 新秩序、 議會、 黨政治家,普魯士、 Reichsheer、 Reichskanzler、 共和國、 貧民窟、 極權、 失業人員、 失業,投票,戰爭,魏瑪、 魏茨澤克、 第二次世界大戰,


French :

1932, XXe siècle, Adolf Hitler, le peuple aryen, autocratique, Bruno Hähnel, campagnes, chancelier de l'Allemagne, Cheering, villes communistes, crise, foules, manifestation, manifestations, dictateur, dictature, Egon Hanfstaengl, élection, élections, fascisme, Führer, allemand, empire allemand, Reich allemand, le parti ouvrier allemand, gouvernement, Günther Schroeder, Heil Hitler, Hindenburg, images d'Hitler, Holocauste, Lebensraum, vivant de l'espace, Marcuse, Marion Dönhoff, Mein Kampf, chef militaire, mon combat, nazisme, socialiste NationalNazi, nazis marches, parti Nazi, nazisme, New Order, Parlement, parti, politicien, Prusse, Reichsheer, Reichskanzler, République, bidonvilles, totalitaire, sans emploi, chômage, vote, guerre, Weimar, Weizsäcker, la seconde guerre mondiale,


Sound Bite and conversation:



Hitler, Adolf

(german conductor) , speaking German:
-  "„ They can repress us, even kill us, I don’t mind, but we will never capitulate.“"

Marion Dönhoff

(student in a german school, 1932) , speaking German:
-  "He described it so believably, the wonderful things he would realise after having been elected, that people believed with reason that he was their saviour. "

Marion Dönhoff

(student in a german school, 1932) , speaking German:
-  "People believed in a miracle worker, because they were embittered. And then came somebody, who had strong self-confidence and who could impress people with the strength of hypnosis. "

Marcuse, Hans

(Supporter of the German Communist Party) , speaking German:
-  "“We could choose: the Soviet Germany or National Socialist Germany, but at that time people said – or rather the communists said that – who chooses Hitler, chooses war.“ "

Weizsäcker, Carl Friedrich von

(university student in Germany, 1990s) , speaking German:
-  "One could see that this could not go on like that. People felt that something radically new had to happen. "

Hähnel, Bruno

(NSDAP member of those times) , speaking German:
-  "The financial situation of the NSDAP from the first day till the last one was very hard. In the first few months they kept the membership certificates of the new members at the local offices, so that they could collect the first few months’ membership fees on a local level and only after that they sent the certificates to headquarters in Munich. "

Schroeder, Günther

(witness when the end of the Weimar republic was) , speaking German:
-  "They had high boots, belt buckles on their trousers, rifle slings and honours – this cost a fortune in those times, but all of them had a uniform. It had to be financed somehow. "

Marion Dönhoff

(student in a german school, 1932) , speaking German:
-  "There were no people who could have been suitable for this task, who would have been ready to risk their lives or reputation. "

Schroeder, Günther

(witness when the end of the Weimar republic was) , speaking German:
-  "They started to hit each other with sticks and slats of the fence. This had nothing to do with the election campaign – it was rather a smaller civil war. "

Marion Dönhoff

(student in a german school, 1932) , speaking German:
-  "Altogether with the families this was at least a quarter of the population and they hardly had any social care. A few years ago I checked it, 10 Mark 50 pfennig was the allotment for a four-or five-member family. A lot of people were starving. "

Marion Dönhoff

(student in a german school, 1932) , speaking German:
-  "Nobody knew what democracy meant, they had no idea about that and nobody wanted it. Everybody trusted in the right wing; they said, this is the end, the cleft where left wing, this “homeless” society, wants to push us. "

Hanfstaengl, Egon

(son of Hitler’s press chief) , speaking German:
-  "The biggest innovation was the flight tour around the country. This way Hitler had the opportunity to hold speeches in different locations in the morning and in the afternoon on mass meetings, in different German cities. "

Hitler, Adolf

(german conductor) , speaking German:
-  "“We have chosen an aim for ourselves and we are fanatically fighting for it, relentlessly till we die if needed... “"

Produced

1999

Definition:

SD
color audio

Format:

4:3
Original video: This ist the original video - with voice over (German)
Click to view the video from this part!

ID Nr.:

25127

Uploaded:

09-07-2014 01:35:29

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