Leonid Brezhnev: Kremlin's total - Brezhnev in his office discussing (00:00:29)
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Leonid Brezhnev: Kremlin's total - Brezhnev in his office discussing

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Soviet Union, Moscow, 1970s


Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: About this sound Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев​ (help·info), December 19, 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen year term as General Secretary was one of the lengthiest, second only to that of Joseph Stalin. During Brezhnev's rule, the global influence of the Soviet Union grew dramatically, in part because of the expansion of the Soviet Military during this time. In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to support the fragile Marxist government located there, a move condemned by the West. His tenure as leader has often been criticized for marking the beginning of a period of economic stagnation, overlooking serious economic problems which eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Brezhnev was born in Kamenskoe into a Ukrainian workers family. After graduating from the Dniprodzerzhynsk Metallurgical Technicum he became a metallurgical engineer in the iron and steel industry in Ukraine. He joined Komsomol in 1923 and, in 1929, joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, playing an active role in the party's affairs. In 1936, he was drafted into compulsory military service and later became a political commissar in a tank factory. In 1939, he was promoted Party Secretary of Dnipropetrovsk, an important military industrial complex. When Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, he was drafted into immediate military service. During his service, he met Nikita Khrushchev whom he later succeeded as General Secretary. He left the army in 1946 with the rank of Major General and was subsequently promoted to First Secretary of the Communist Party in Dnipropetrovsk. In 1950, he became deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the highest legislative body in the country, and in 1952 became a member of the Central Committee. Brezhnev was appointed to the Presidium (formerly the Politburo) soon after. He became a Khrushchev protégé in government, but eventually orchestrated his overthrow and replaced him as General Secretary in 1964. As a leader, Brezhnev was a team player, and took care to consult his colleagues before acting, but his attempt to govern without meaningful economic reforms led to a national decline by the mid-1970s. His rule was marked by what later became known as the Brezhnev stagnation. A significant increase in military expenditures which by the time of Brezhnev's death stood at approximately 15 percent of the country's GNP, and an increasingly elderly and ineffective leadership set the stage for a dwindling GNP compared to Western nations. It was during this time that the full extent of government corruption became known, but Brezhnev refused to launch any major corruption investigations, claiming that no one lived just on their wages. On November 10, 1982, an ill Brezhnev died, and was quickly succeeded in his post as General Secretary by Yuri Andropov. While at the helm of the USSR, Brezhnev pushed for détente between the Eastern and Western countries. Brezhnev engaged in increased international trade with non-communist countries, most notably the United States. However, his view on tackling the reformist movement was not flexible, and in 1968 the USSR along with members states of the Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia. In the invasion's aftermath, the Soviet Union strengthened its hold on Eastern Europe and became tougher in its diplomatic relations abroad, particularly with Third World countries. His last major decision in power was to send Soviet military to Afghanistan in an attempt to save the fragile regime which fought a war against religious extremists. Brezhnev fostered a cult of personality, although not on the same level seen under Stalin. After his death the subsequent leader of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, denounced his legacy and drove the process of liberalization of the Soviet Union.

Other languages: show / hide

Arabic :

سوق الاتحاد السوفياتي، والاشتراكية، والشيوعية، والدكتاتورية، الاقتصاد، اللينينية، الكرملين مجموع، بريجنيف، مكتب، مناقشة، السبعينات، ليونيد إيليتش بريجنيف السكرتير العام "الحزب الشيوعي في" الاتحاد السوفياتي، ليونيد بريجنيف،,

Bulgarian :

Съветския съюз, социализъм, комунизъм, диктатура, пазарна икономика, ленинизма, Кремъл общо, Брежнев, офис, обсъждане, 1970, Леонид Илич Брежнев, генерален секретар на комунистическата партия на Съветския съюз, Леонид Брежнев, ,

Catalan :

Unió Soviètica, socialisme, comunisme, dictadura, mercat al Kremlin economia, Leninisme, total, Brezhnev, oficina, discutint, 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Secretari General del Partit Comunista de la Unió Soviètica, Leonid Brèjnev, ,

Chinese Simplified :

苏联的社会主义、 共产主义、 独裁统治,市场经济,列宁主义,克里姆林宫的总数,勃列日涅夫,办公室,讨论,20 世纪 70 年代,列昂尼德 · 伊里奇 · 勃列日涅夫、 苏联共产党总书记 勃列日涅夫,

Chinese Traditional :

蘇聯的社會主義、 共產主義、 獨裁統治,市場經濟,列寧主義,克里姆林宮的總數,勃列日涅夫,辦公室,討論,20 世紀 70 年代,列昂尼德 · 伊裡奇 · 勃列日涅夫、 蘇聯共產黨總書記 勃列日涅夫,

Czech :

Sovětský svaz, socialismus, komunismus, diktatura, tržní ekonomiky, leninismus, Kreml celkem, Brežněv, kancelář, diskutovat, 1970, Leonid Iljič Brezhnev, generální tajemník komunistické strany Sovětského svazu, Leonid Brežněv, ,

Danish :

Sovjetunionen, socialisme, kommunisme, diktatur, markedet økonomi, leninismen, Kremls total, Bresjnev, kontor, diskutere, 1970 ' erne, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, generalsekretær for kommunistpartiet i Sovjetunionen, Leonid Bresjnev, ,

Dutch :

Sovjet-Unie, socialisme, communisme, dictatuur, de markt van de economie, leninisme, Kremlin totaal, Brezjnev, kantoor, bespreken, van de jaren zeventig, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, secretaris-generaal van de communistische partij van de Sovjet-Unie, Leonid Brezjnev, ,

Estonian :

Nõukogude Liidus, sotsialism, kommunism, diktatuur, turu majanduse, Leninism, Kremli kokku, Brežnev, büroo, arutab, 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Nõukogude Liidu Kommunistliku Partei Sekretär-asjaajaja Leonid Brežnev, ,

Finnish :

Neuvostoliiton ja sosialismin, kommunismin, diktatuuri, markkinoiden talouden leninismi, Kremlin yhteensä Brezhnevin, toimisto, keskustelemme, 1970, Leonid Iljitshin Brežnev, Neuvostoliiton kommunistisen puolueen pääsihteeri Leonid Brežnev,

French :

URSS, socialisme, communisme, dictature, marché du Kremlin économie, léninisme, total, Brejnev, bureau, discuter, des années 1970, Leonid Brezhnev Ilyich, Secrétaire général du parti communiste de l'Union soviétique, Leonid Brejnev, ,

German :

Sowjetunion, Sozialismus, Kommunismus, Diktatur, Markt Wirtschaft, Leninismus, Kreml insgesamt, Breschnew, Büro, diskutieren, 70er Jahre, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Generalsekretär der kommunistischen Partei der Sowjetunion Leonid Breschnew, ,

Greek :

Σοβιετική Ένωση, σοσιαλισμός, κομμουνισμός, δικτατορία, της αγοράς του Κρεμλίνου οικονομία, λενινισμός, σύνολο, Μπρέζνιεφ, γραφείο, συζήτηση, την δεκαετία του 1970, Λεονίντ Ιλίτς Μπρέζνιεφ, Γενικός Γραμματέας του Κομμουνιστικού Κόμματος της Σοβιετικής Ένωσης, Λεονίντ Μπρέζνιεφ, ,

Haitian Creole :

Inyon Sovyetik, sosyalis la, sistèm kominis, diktati, mache ekonomi an, Leninism, Kremlin an total pou, Brezhnev, biwo, diskite, Des, Leonid Ilitch Brezhnev, sekretè jeneral Pati Kòminis la Inyon Sovyetik la, Leonid, Brezhnev, ,

Hebrew :

ברית המועצות, סוציאליזם, קומוניזם, דיקטטורה, שוק של הכלכלה, לניניזם, הקרמלין סה כ, ברז'נייב, משרד, דנים, ה-70, ליאוניד איליץ ' ברז'נייב, המזכיר הכללי של המפלגה הקומוניסטית של ברית המועצות, ליאוניד ברז'נייב, ,

Hindi :

सोवियत संघ, समाजवाद, साम्यवाद, तानाशाही, बाजार अर्थव्यवस्था, Leninism, क्रेमलिन कुल, ब्रेजनेव, कार्यालय, चर्चा, 1970 के दशक, लियोनिद ब्रेजनेव इलिच, सोवियत संघ की कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी के महासचिव लियोनिद ब्रेजनेव, ,

Hungarian :

Szovjetunió, a szocializmus, a kommunizmus, a diktatúra, gazdaság, népi, Kreml piac teljes, Brezsnyev, office, megbeszélése, 1970-es években, Leonyid Iljics Brezhnev, a Szovjetunió Kommunista Párt főtitkára Leonyid Brezsnyev, ,

Indonesian :

Uni Soviet, sosialisme, komunisme, kediktatoran, pasar ekonomi, Leninisme, Kremlin total, Brezhnev, kantor, membahas, 1970-an, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Sekretaris Jenderal Partai Komunis Uni Soviet Leonid Brezhnev, ,

Italian :

Unione Sovietica, socialismo, comunismo, dittatura, economia, leninismo, Cremlino di mercato totale, Brezhnev, ufficio, discutendo, anni settanta, Leonid Brezhnev Ilyich, Segretario generale del partito comunista dell'Unione Sovietica, Leonid Brezhnev, ,

Japanese :

ソビエト連邦、社会主義、共産主義、独裁制、市場経済、レーニン主義、クレムリンの合計、ブレジネフ、オフィス、議論、1970 年代、レオニード ・ イリイチ ・ ブレジネフ、ソビエト連邦の共産党の書記長 レオニード ・ ブレジネフ,

Korean :

소련, 사회주의 공산주의 독재, 시장 경제, 레닌주의 크렘린의 총, 브레즈네프, 사무실, 논의 1970, 레오니트 일리치 브레즈네프, 소 연방의 공산당의 서기장 레오니트 브레즈네프,

Latvian :

PSRS sociālisma, komunisma diktatūra, tirgus ekonomiku, Leninism, Kremļa kopā Brežņevs, biroja, apspriežot, 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Padomju Savienības Komunistiskās partijas ģenerālsekretārs Leonid Brežņevs,

Lithuanian :

Sovietų Sąjungos, Socializmas, komunizmas, diktatūra, rinkos ekonomikos, Leninizmas, Kremliaus iš viso, Brežnevas, office, aptarti, 1970 m., Ilyich okupacine, Sovietų Sąjunga, komunistų partijos generalinis sekretorius Leonidas Brežnevas, ,

Norwegian :

Sovjetunionen, sosialismen, kommunismen, diktatur, marked økonomien, leninisme, Kremls totalt, Bresjnev, kontor, diskutere, 1970 Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, generalsekretær i kommunistpartiet i Sovjetunionen Leonid Bresjnev, ,

Polish :

Związek Radziecki, socjalizm, komunizm, dyktatura, rynku gospodarki, Leninizm, Kreml ogółem, Breżniew, biuro, dyskusji, 1970, Leonid Iljicz Brezhnev, sekretarz generalny Komunistycznej Partii Związku Radzieckiego, Leonid Breżniew, ,

Portuguese :

União Soviética, socialismo, comunismo, ditadura, economia, leninismo, do Kremlin de mercado total, Brezhnev, escritório, discutindo, de 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, secretário-geral do Partido Comunista da União Soviética, Leonid Brejnev, ,

Romanian :

Uniunii Sovietice, socialismul, comunismul, dictatura, economie, Leninism, Kremlin-ul de piaţă totală, Brejnev, birou, discuta, 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Secretar General al Partidului Comunist al Uniunii Sovietice, Leonid Brejnev, ,

Russian :

СССР, социализм, коммунизм, диктатура, рыночной экономики, ленинизм, Кремль всего, Брежнев, офис, обсуждая, 1970-х, Леонид Ильич Брежнев, Генеральный секретарь Коммунистической партии Советского Союза, Леонид Брежнев, ,

Slovak :

Sovietsky zväz, socializmus, komunizmus, diktatúra, trhové hospodárstvo, marxismu, Kremeľ celkom, Brežnev, kancelárii, diskutovať, 1970, Leonid Iľjič Brežnev, generálny tajomník komunistickej strany Sovietskeho zväzu, Leonid Brežnev, ,

Slovenian :

Sovjetska zveza, komunizem, socializem, diktatura, tržno gospodarstvo, Leninism, Kremelj skupaj, Brežnjev, office, razpravljamo, 1970, Leonid Iljič Brežnjev, generalni sekretar komunistične partije Sovjetske zveze, Leonid Brežnjev, ,

Spanish :

Unión Soviética, socialismo, comunismo, dictadura, economía, leninismo, Kremlin del mercado total, Brezhnev, oficina, discutiendo, años 70, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Secretario General del partido comunista de la Unión Soviética, Leonid Brezhnev, ,

Swedish :

Sovjetunionen, socialism, kommunism, diktatur, marknadsföra ekonomi, Leninism, Kremls totalt, Brezjnev, kontor, diskutera, 1970-talet, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, generalsekreterare för kommunistpartiet i Sovjetunionen, Leonid Brezjnev, ,

Thai :

สหภาพโซเวียต สังคมนิยม คอมมิวนิสต์ เผด็จการ ตลาดของเครมลินเศรษฐกิจ ลัทธิเลนิน รวม นิดเบรจเนฟ สำนักงาน สนทนา ทศวรรษ 1970 เลโอนิดเบรจเนฟ Ilyich เลขาธิการพรรคคอมมิวนิสต์ของสหภาพโซเวียต เลโอนิดเบรจเนฟ,

Turkish :

Sovyetler Birliği, sosyalizm, komünizm, diktatörlük, piyasa ekonomisi, Leninizm, Kremlin'in toplam tartışırken, 1970'lerde, Brejnev, ofis, Leonid Brejnev İlyiç, Sovyetler Birliği Komünist Partisi Genel Sekreteri Leonid Brejnev, ,

Ukrainian :

Радянський Союз, соціалізм, комунізм, диктатури, ринок економіки, ленінізму, Кремль підсумувати, Брежнєв, офіс, обговорюючи, 1970-х, Леонід Ілліч Брежнєв, Генеральний секретар Комуністичної партії Радянського Союзу, Леонід Брежнєв,

Vietnamese :

Liên Xô, chủ nghĩa xã hội, chủ nghĩa cộng sản, độc tài, thị trường kinh tế, Lenin, Kremlin tổng số, Brezhnev, văn phòng, thảo luận, thập niên 1970, Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev, Tổng bí thư của Đảng Cộng sản Liên Xô, Leonid Brezhnev, ,




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21-12-2010 16:32:20

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