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Title:

Warsaw ghetto: Hundreds of Jews in the concentration camp

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Location and time:

Poland, Warsaw, 1940s

Description:

Warsaw ghetto: Hundreds of Jews in the concentration camp The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. Frank ordered Jews in Warsaw and its suburbs rounded up and herded into the Ghetto. At this time, the population in the Ghetto was estimated to be 400,000 people, about 30% of the population of Warsaw; however, the size of the Ghetto was about 2.4% of the size of Warsaw. The ghetto was split into two areas, the "small ghetto", generally inhabited by richer Jews and the "large ghetto", where conditions were more difficult; the two ghettos were linked by a single footbridge. The Nazis then closed the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world on November 16, 1940, by building a wall, topped with barbed wire, and deploying armed guards. A child dying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto Dead bodies in the ghetto, 25 May 1941 During the next year and a half, thousands of the Polish Jews as well as some Romani people from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhus), and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 186 cal, compared to 1,669 cal for gentile Poles and 2,614 cal for Germans. Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in often by children. Hundreds of four to five year old Jewish children went across en masse to the "Aryan side", sometimes several times a day, smuggling food into the ghettos, returning with goods that often weighed more than they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation. Despite the grave hardships, life in the Warsaw Ghetto was rich with educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. The life in the ghetto was chronicled by the Oyneg Shabbos group. Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp during the Grossaktion Warschau, part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard. Between Tisha B'Av (July 23) and Yom Kippur (September 21) of 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents (or at least 300,000 by different accounts) were sent to Treblinka and murdered there. In 1942 Polish resistance officer Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight. On January 18, 1943, the first instance of armed resistance occurred when the Germans started the final expulsion of the remaining Jews. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB and ŻZW resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators. The final battle started on the eve of Passover of April 19, 1943, when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminated with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps, most of them to Treblinka.

Other languages: show / hide


Arabic :

بولندا، وارسو، هانز فرانك، اليهود البولنديين، اليهودية والشعب الروماني، ومشرك، الآرية، ومعبد Nożyk، والنازية، هتلر، SS، غيتو وارسو، والحرب، و ww2، الحرب العالمية الثانية، ألمانيا النازية، ومعسكرات الاعتقال، والأربعينيات، العمل، مئات يهود،,


Bulgarian :

Полша, Варшава, Ханс Франк, полски евреи, евреи, цигани, езичник, арийски, Nożyk синагога, нацистки, Хитлер, СС, Варшавското гето, война, ww2, Втората световна война, нацистка Германия, концентрационни лагери, 1940, работа, стотици евреи, ,


Catalan :

Polònia, Varsòvia, Hans Frank, jueus polonesos, jueus, gitanos, gentil, ària, Nożyk sinagoga, nazi, Hitler, SS, gueto de Varsòvia, guerra, 2 ª Guerra Mundial, la Segona Guerra Mundial, l'Alemanya Nazi, camps de concentració, dels anys 1940, treballar, centenars de jueus, ,


Chinese Simplified :

波兰, 华沙, 汉斯法兰克, 波兰犹太人, 犹太, 罗姆人, 非犹太人, 雅利安语, Nożyk 犹太教堂, 纳粹, Hitler, SS, 华沙 Ghetto, war, ww2, World 战争 II, 纳粹德国, 集中犹太人 camps, 1940s, work, hundreds, ,


Chinese Traditional :

波蘭, 華沙, 漢斯法蘭克, 波蘭猶太人, 猶太, 羅姆人, 非猶太人, 雅利安語, Nożyk 猶太教堂, 納粹, Hitler, SS, 華沙 Ghetto, war, ww2, World 戰爭 II, 納粹德國, 集中猶太人 camps, 1940s, work, hundreds, ,


Czech :

Polsko, Varšava, Hans Frank, polských Židů, Židé, Romové, gentile, árijský, Nożyk synagoga, nacista, Hitler, SS, varšavského ghetta, válka, ww2, světové války, nacistické Německo, koncentrační tábory, 1940, práce, stovky Židů, ,


Danish :

Polen, Warszawa, Hans Frank, polske jøder, jødiske, roma-folket, gentile, ariske, Nożyk synagoge, nazistiske, Hitler, SS, Warszawa Ghetto, krig, ww2, anden verdenskrig, Nazityskland, koncentrationslejre, 1940 ' erne, arbejde, hundredvis af jøder, ,


Dutch :

Polen, Warschau, Hans Frank, Poolse joden, Joden, Roma, gentile, Arische, Nożyk synagoge, nazi, Hitler, SS, het getto van Warschau, oorlog, ww2, tweede Wereldoorlog, de nazi-Duitsland, de concentratiekampen, de werken van de jaren 1940, honderden joden, ,


Estonian :

Poola, Varssavi, Hans Frank, Poola juudid, juudi, mustlased, gentile, aaria, Nożyk sünagoog, nats, Hitler, SS, Varssavi geto, sõda, ww2, II maailmasõda, natsi-Saksamaa, nendeks, 1940, tööta, juudid, sadu,


Finnish :

Puola, Varsova, Hans Frank, Puolan juutalaisia, juutalaiset, romanit, pakana, arjalainen, kuten Nożyk synagoga, natsi, Hitler, SS, Warsaw Ghetto, sota, ww2, toinen maailmansota, natsi-Saksan keskitysleirien, 1940-luvulla toimi, satoja juutalaisia, ,


French :

Pologne, Varsovie, Hans Frank, Juifs polonais, Juifs, Roms, gentile, Aryan, Synagogue de Nożyki, nazi, Hitler, SS, du Ghetto de Varsovie, war, ww2, la seconde guerre mondiale, l’Allemagne nazie, les camps de concentration, des années 1940, de travail, des centaines de Juifs, ,


German :

Polen, Warschau, Hans Frank, polnische Juden, Juden, Roma, Heide, Aryan, Nożyk Synagoge, Nazi, Hitler, SS, Warschauer Ghetto, Krieg, 2. Weltkrieg, Zweiter Weltkrieg, Nationalsozialismus, Konzentrationslager, 1940er Jahre, arbeiten, Hunderte von Juden, ,


Greek :

Πολωνία, Βαρσοβία, Χανς Φρανκ, πολωνικοί Εβραίοι, Εβραίοι, Ρομά, Τζεντίλε, άρια, Nożyk Συναγωγή, Ναζί, ο Χίτλερ, SS, γκέτο της Βαρσοβίας, πόλεμος, ww2, β ' Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, η ναζιστική Γερμανία, στρατόπεδα συγκέντρωσης, του 1940, εργασία, εκατοντάδες Εβραίοι, ,


Haitian Creole :

Poland, Vasovi, Hans Frank, Lapolòy jwif yo, jwif, Romani pèp, soupl, Aryenne, Nożyk sinagòg, nazi, Hitler, SS, geto Warsaw, lagè, ww2, gè MONDYAL, Almay Nazi, konsantrasyon kan yo, 40, travay, dè santèn de jwif yo, ,


Hebrew :

פולין, ורשה, הנס פרנק, יהודים פולנים, יהודים, צוענים, גוי, ארית, בית הכנסת נוז'יק, נאצים, היטלר, אס. אס, גטו ורשה, מלחמה, ww2, מלחמת העולם השנייה, גרמניה הנאצית, מחנות הריכוז, שנות ה-40, עובדים, מאות יהודים, ,


Hindi :

पोलैंड, वारसॉ, हंस फ्रैंक, पोलिश यहूदी, यहूदी, रोमाणि लोग, अंयजातियों, आर्यन, Nożyk आराधनालय, नाजी, हिटलर, एसएस, वारसॉ यहूदी बस्ती, युद्ध, ww2, द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध, नाजी जर्मनी, एकाग्रता शिविरों, 1940, काम, यहूदियों के सैकड़ों, ,


Hungarian :

Lengyelország, Varsó, Hans Frank, lengyel zsidó, zsidó, Roma, zsidó, árja, Nożyk zsinagóga, náci, Hitler, a SS, a Varsói gettó, a háború, a ww2, második világháború, a náci Németország, a koncentrációs táborok, 1940-es években a munka, több száz zsidó, ,


Indonesian :

Polandia, Warsawa, Hans Frank, Yahudi Polandia, Yahudi, orang-orang Romani, kafir, Aryan, Nożyk Synagogue, nazi, Hitler, SS, Ghetto Warsawa, perang, ww2, Perang Dunia II, Nazi Jerman, kamp-kamp konsentrasi, 1940-an, bekerja, ratusan orang Yahudi, ,


Italian :

Polonia, Varsavia, Hans Frank, ebrei polacchi, ebrei, ROM, gentile, Ariana, Nożyk Synagogue, nazista, Hitler, SS, Ghetto di Varsavia, guerra, ww2, seconda guerra mondiale, la Germania nazista, campi di concentramento, 1940, lavoro, centinaia di ebrei, ,


Japanese :

ポーランド、ワルシャワ、ハンス ・ フランク、ポーランド系ユダヤ人、ユダヤ人、ロマ、ジェンティーレ、アーリア人、Nożyk シナゴーグ、ナチス、ヒトラー、SS、ワルシャワのゲットー、戦争、ww2 の第二次世界大戦、ナチス ・ ドイツの強制収容所、1940 年代、仕事、何百ものユダヤ人、,


Korean :

폴란드, 바르샤바, 한스 프랭크, 폴란드 유대인, 유태인, Romani 사람들, 이방인, 아리아, Nożyk 회당, 나치, 히틀러, SS, 와르소 유대인 거리, 전쟁, ww2, 제 2 차 세계 대전, 나치 독일 강제 수용소, 1940, , 유태인의 수백,


Latvian :

Polija, Varšava, Hans Frank, poļu ebreji, ebreju, čigāni, gentile, āriešu, Nożyk sinagogu, nacistu, Hitlers, SS, Varšavas geto, kara, ww2, II pasaules kara, nacistiskās Vācijas koncentrācijas nometnēs, 1940s, strādā simtiem ebreju, ,


Lithuanian :

Lenkija, Varšuva, Hans frankas, Lenkijos žydų, žydų, romų tautybės žmonių, pagonių, arijų, Nożyk sinagoga, nacių, Hitleris, SS, Varšuvos getas, karo, ww2, antrojo pasaulinio karo, nacistinės Vokietijos, koncentracijos stovyklos, 1940-aisiais, dirbti, šimtai žydų, ,


Norwegian :

Polen, Warszawa, Hans Frank, polske jøder, jødiske, sigøynere, hedninger, ariske, Nożyk synagogen, nazi, Hitler, SS, ghettoen, krig, ww2, andre VERDENSKRIG, Nazi-Tyskland, konsentrasjonsleirer, 1940 fungerer, hundrevis av jøder, ,


Polish :

Polska, Warszawa, Hans Frank, Polscy Żydzi, żydowskiej, Romowie, gentile, Aryan, bóżnica, nazistowskich, Hitler, SS, warszawskiego getta, wojny, ww2, II wojny światowej, Niemcy hitlerowskie obozy koncentracyjne, 1940, pracy, setki Żydów, ,


Portuguese :

Polónia, Varsóvia, Hans Frank, judeus polacos, judeus, ciganos, gentile, Ariana, sinagoga Nożyk, nazista, Hitler SS, gueto de Varsóvia, guerra, 2ª Guerra Mundial, segunda guerra mundial, a Alemanha nazista, campos de concentração, de 1940, trabalho, centenas de judeus, ,


Romanian :

Polonia, Varșovia, Hans Frank, evreii polonezi, evreilor, rromilor, gentile, arian, Nożyk Synagogue, nazist, Hitler, SS, ghetoul Varșovia, război, ww2, al doilea război mondial, Germania nazistă, lagărele de concentrare, 1940, locul de muncă, sute de evrei, ,


Russian :

Польша, Варшава, Ганс Франк, польских евреев, евреев, цыган, Джентиле, арийской, Синагога Ножиков, нацистской, Гитлер, SS, Варшавском гетто, войны, ww2, второй мировой войны, нацистской Германии, концентрационные лагеря, в 1940-х годов работа, сотни евреев, ,


Slovak :

Poľsko, Varšava, Hans Frank, poľských Židov, židovských, Rómovia, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk synagóga, nacistickej, Hitler SS, Varšavského geta, vojnu, ww2, svetovej vojny, nacistické Nemecko, koncentračné tábory, 1940, práca, stovky Židov, ,


Slovenian :

Poljska, Varšava, Hans Frank, poljski Judje, judovski, Romani ljudi, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk sinagoga, nacistične, Hitler, SS, Varšava židovska četrt, vojne ww2, WEHRMACHTA, nacistični Nemčiji, koncentracijska taborišča, 1940, delo, več sto Judov, ,


Spanish :

Polonia, Varsovia, Hans Frank, judíos polacos, judíos, romaníes, gentile, Aria, Sinagoga Nożyk, nazi, Hitler, SS, gueto de Varsovia, war, ww2, segunda guerra mundial, Alemania Nazi, campos de concentración, década de 1940, el trabajo, cientos de judíos, ,


Swedish :

Polen, Warszawa, Hans Frank, polska judar, judar, romer, gentile, ariska, Nożyk synagoga, nazist, SS, krig, Warszawas getto, Hitler, ww2, andra världskriget, Nazityskland, koncentrationsläger, 1940-talet, arbeta, hundratals judar, ,


Thai :

โปแลนด์ วอร์ซอ ฮานส์แฟรงก์ โปแลนด์ยิว ยิว ชาวโรมานี เวอร์จิ้น อารยัน โบสถ์ Nożyk นา ซี ฮิตเลอร์ SS วอร์ซอเกตโต สงคราม ww2 สงครามโลก นาซีเยอรมนี ค่ายกักกัน ปี 1940 ทำงาน ชาวยิว หลายร้อย,


Turkish :

Polonya, Varşova, Hans Frank, Polonyalı Yahudiler, Yahudi, roman insanlar, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk Sinagogu, nazi, Hitler, SS, Varşova gettosu, savaş, ww2, İkinci Dünya Savaşı, Nazi Almanya'sı, toplama kampları, 1940'larda, , Yahudiler, yüzlerce,


Ukrainian :

Польща, Варшава, Ганса Франка, польських євреїв, єврейських, Romani людей, язичник, арійської, Nożyk синагозі, нацистська, Гітлер СС Варшавське Гетто, війна, 2МВ, Другої світової війни, нацистської Німеччини, концентраційних таборів, 1940 року, робота, сотні євреїв, ,


Vietnamese :

Ba Lan, warsaw, Hans Frank, Ba Lan Do Thái, do Thái, người Romani, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk Synagogue, phát xít, Hitler, SS, Warsaw Ghetto, chiến tranh, ww2, thế chiến II, phát xít Đức, trại tập trung, thập niên 1940, công việc, hàng trăm người Do Thái, ,


Produced

1940s

Definition:

SD
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2765_4950

Uploaded:

17-09-2010 12:39:38

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