Warsaw ghetto: Soldiers control the people after the German capitulation (00:00:31)
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Warsaw ghetto: Soldiers control the people after the German capitulation

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Poland, Warsaw, 1940s


Warsaw ghetto: Soldiers control the people after the German capitulation The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. Frank ordered Jews in Warsaw and its suburbs rounded up and herded into the Ghetto. At this time, the population in the Ghetto was estimated to be 400,000 people, about 30% of the population of Warsaw; however, the size of the Ghetto was about 2.4% of the size of Warsaw. The ghetto was split into two areas, the "small ghetto", generally inhabited by richer Jews and the "large ghetto", where conditions were more difficult; the two ghettos were linked by a single footbridge. The Nazis then closed the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world on November 16, 1940, by building a wall, topped with barbed wire, and deploying armed guards. A child dying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto Dead bodies in the ghetto, 25 May 1941 During the next year and a half, thousands of the Polish Jews as well as some Romani people from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhus), and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 186 cal, compared to 1,669 cal for gentile Poles and 2,614 cal for Germans. Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in often by children. Hundreds of four to five year old Jewish children went across en masse to the "Aryan side", sometimes several times a day, smuggling food into the ghettos, returning with goods that often weighed more than they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation. Despite the grave hardships, life in the Warsaw Ghetto was rich with educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. The life in the ghetto was chronicled by the Oyneg Shabbos group. Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp during the Grossaktion Warschau, part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard. Between Tisha B'Av (July 23) and Yom Kippur (September 21) of 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents (or at least 300,000 by different accounts) were sent to Treblinka and murdered there. In 1942 Polish resistance officer Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight. On January 18, 1943, the first instance of armed resistance occurred when the Germans started the final expulsion of the remaining Jews. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB and ŻZW resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators. The final battle started on the eve of Passover of April 19, 1943, when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminated with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps, most of them to Treblinka.

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Bulgarian :

Полша, Варшава, Ханс Франк, полски евреи, евреи, цигани, езичник, арийски, Nożyk синагога, нацистите, Хитлер, СС, Варшавското гето, война, ww2, Втората световна война, нацистка Германия, концентрация лагери, 1940, войници, армия, военни, униформа, проверка, контрол, хора, германската капитулация, терор, Германия, борба, битка, оръжие, ,

Chinese Simplified :

波兰,华沙,汉斯 · 弗兰克、 波兰的犹太人,犹太人、 吉普赛人、 外邦人,雅利安人,Nożyk 犹太教堂,纳粹,希特勒、 SS、 华沙犹太区、 战争、 ww2 二战,纳粹德国,浓度营、 1940 年代,士兵、 军队、 军事、 制服、 检查、 控制,人,德国投降、 恐怖、 德国,战斗,战斗,武器,,

Chinese Traditional :

波蘭,華沙,漢斯 · 弗蘭克、 波蘭的猶太人,猶太人、 吉普賽人、 外邦人,雅利安人,Nożyk 猶太教堂,納粹,希特勒、 SS、 華沙猶太區、 戰爭、 ww2 二戰,納粹德國,濃度營、 1940 年代,士兵、 軍隊、 軍事、 制服、 檢查、 控制,人,德國投降、 恐怖、 德國,戰鬥,戰鬥,武器,,

Czech :

Polsko, Varšava, Hans Frank, polských Židů, Židé, Romové, pohan, árijský, Nożyk synagoga, nacista, Hitler, SS, varšavského ghetta, válka, ww2, světová válka II, nacistické Německo, koncentrace táborů, 1940, vojáci, armáda, vojenské uniformy, kontrola, řízení lidí, německé kapitulace, teror, Německo, boj, bitva, zbraň, ,

Dutch :

Polen, Warschau, Hans Frank, Poolse joden, Joden, Roma, gentile, Arische, Nożyk synagoge, nazi, Hitler, SS, het getto van Warschau, oorlog, ww2, World war II, nazi-Duitsland, concentratie camps, van de jaren 1940, soldaten, leger, militair, uniform, check, controle, mensen, Duitse capitulatie, terreur, Duitsland, strijd, gevecht, wapen, ,

Estonian :

Poola, Varssavi, Hans Frank, Polish Jews, juudi, mustlased, gentile, aaria, Nożyk sünagoogi, natsi, Hitler, SS, Varssavi geto, sõda, ww2, Esimene maailmasõda, natsi-Saksamaa kontsentratsioon laagreid, 1940, sõdurid, sõjaväe, sõjaväe, ühtlane, kontrollige, kontroll, inimesed, Saksamaa kapituleerub, terror, Saksamaa, võitlus, lahing, relv, ,

Finnish :

Puola, Varsova, Hans Frank, Puolan juutalaisia, juutalaiset, romanit, pakana, arjalainen, kuten Nożyk synagoga, natsi, SS, Hitler, ww2, World war II, natsi-Saksa, sota, Warsaw Ghetto pitoisuus camps, 1940, sotilaita, armeija, sotilaspuku, tarkista, valvonta, ihmiset, Saksan antautumisen, kauhua, Saksa, taistelu, taistelu, ase, ,

French :

Pologne, Varsovie, Hans Frank, Juifs polonais, Juifs, Roms, gentile, Aryan, Synagogue de Nożyki, nazi, Hitler, SS, du Ghetto de Varsovie, war, ww2, seconde guerre mondiale, l'Allemagne nazie, camps de concentration, des années 1940, soldats, uniforme militaire, armée, vérifier, contrôle, personnes, la capitulation allemande, terreur, Allemagne, combat, bataille, arme, ,

Greek :

Πολωνία, Βαρσοβία, Χανς Φρανκ, Πολωνών Εβραίων, εβραϊκή, Ρομά, Τζεντίλε, άριος, Nożyk συναγωγή, ναζιστική, Χίτλερ, SS, γκέτο της Βαρσοβίας, πόλεμος, ww2, παγκόσμιο πόλεμο ΙΙ, ναζιστική Γερμανία, στρατόπεδα συγκέντρωσης, του 1940, στρατιώτες, στρατός, στρατιωτική, στολή, ελέγξτε, ελέγχου, άνθρωποι, γερμανική συνθηκολόγηση, τρόμο, Γερμανία, πάλη, μάχη, όπλο, ,

Haitian Creole :

Polòy, Vasovi, Hans Frank, Lapolòy jwif yo, jwif, Romani pèp, soupl, Aryenne, Nożyk sinagòg, nazi, Hitler, SS, geto Warsaw, lagè, ww2, gè mondyal II, Almay Nazi konsantrasyon kan yo, 40, sòlda yo, lame, militè, inifòm, tcheke, kontwòl, moun, Alman rann tèt, terreur, Almay, goumen, batay, zam, ,

Hebrew :

פולין, ורשה, הנס פרנק, יהודים פולנים, יהודים, צוענים, גוי, הארי, בית הכנסת נוז'יק, נאצים, היטלר, אס. אס, גטו ורשה, מלחמה, ww2, מלחמת העולם השנייה, גרמניה הנאצית, הריכוז במחנות, שנות ה-40, חיילים, צבא, צבא, מדים, לבדוק, שליטה, אנשים, הכניעה הגרמנית, טרור, גרמניה, קרב, קרב, נשק, ,

Hindi :

पोलैंड, वॉरसॉ, हैंस फ्रैंक, पोलिश यहूदी, यहूदी, रोमानी लोग, अन्यजातियों, आर्यन, Nożyk आराधनालय, नाजी, हिटलर, एस एस, वॉरसॉ यहूदी बस्ती, युद्ध, ww2, विश्व युद्ध II, नाजी जर्मनी, एकाग्रता शिविरों, 1940 के दशक, सैनिक, सेना, सैन्य, वर्दी, जांच, नियंत्रण, लोगों, समर्पण को जर्मन, आतंक, जर्मनी, लड़ाई, लड़ाई, हथियार, ,

Japanese :

ポーランド、ワルシャワ、Hans フランク、ポーランド系ユダヤ人、ユダヤ人、ロマ、ジェンティーレ、アーリア人、Nożyk のシナゴーグ、ナチス、ヒトラー、SS、ワルシャワのゲットー、戦争、ww2、ナチス ・ ドイツ、第二次世界大戦キャンプ濃度 1940 年代、兵士、軍軍服、確認、制御、人々、ドイツの降伏、恐怖、ドイツ、戦い、戦い、武器、,

Korean :

폴란드, 바르샤바, 한스 프랭크, 폴란드 유대인, 유태인, Romani 사람들, 이방인, 아리아, Nożyk 유대교 회당, 나치, 히틀러, SS, 와르소 유대인 거리, 전쟁, 세계 대전, 나치 독일, ww2 집중 캠프, 1940 년대, 군인, 군대, 군복, 확인, 제어, 사람, 독일 항복, 테러, 독일, 전투, 전투, 무기, ,

Latvian :

Polija, Varšava, Hans Frank, poļu ebreji, ebreju, čigāni, gentile, āriešu, Nożyk sinagogu, nacistu, Hitlers, SS, Varšavas geto, kara, ww2, pasaules kara II, nacistiskās Vācijas koncentrācijas nometnēm, 1940s, karavīri, armijas, militārās formas tērpā, pārbaudīt, kontrole, cilvēki, Vācijas kapitulācija, terors, Vācija, cīņa, kaujas, ieroci, ,

Lithuanian :

Lenkija, Varšuva, Hans frankas, Lenkijos žydų, žydų, čigonų, pagonių, arijų, Nożyk sinagoga, nacių, Hitleris, SS, Varšuvos getas, karo, ww2, II pasaulinio karo, nacistinės Vokietijos, koncentracijos stovykla, 1940-aisiais, kariai, kariuomenė, karinės, formos, patikrinti, kontrolės, žmonių, Vokietijos kapituliacija, teroras, Vokietija, kova, mūšis, ginklas, ,

Norwegian :

Polen, Warszawa, Hans Frank, polske jøder, jødiske, sigøynere, hedninger, ariske, Nożyk synagogen, nazi, Hitler, SS, ghettoen, krig, ww2, andre Verdenskrig, Nazi-Tyskland konsentrasjon leiren, 1940 soldater, hæren, militære, uniform, sjekk, kontroll, folk, tysk kapitulasjon, terror, Tyskland, kamp, kampen, våpen, ,

Polish :

Polska, Warszawa, Hans Frank, Polskich Żydów, żydowskiej, Romowie, pogan, Aryan, Synagoga, nazistowskich, Hitler, SS, warszawskiego getta, wojny, ww2, World war II, nazistowskich Niemiec, stężenie obozy, 1940, żołnierzy, Odzież uniformowa wojskowa, wojsko, sprawdź, kontroli, ludzie, kapitulacji Niemiec, terroru, Niemcy, walki, walki, broń, ,

Portuguese :

Polônia, Varsóvia, Hans Frank, judeus polacos, judeus, ciganos, gentile, Ariana, sinagoga Nożyk, nazista, Hitler SS, gueto de Varsóvia, guerra, 2ª Guerra Mundial, segunda guerra mundial, a Alemanha nazista, campos de concentração, de 1940, soldados, exército, militar, uniforme, verificação, controle, pessoas, capitulação alemã, terror, Alemanha, luta, batalha, arma, ,

Russian :

Польша, Варшава, Ганс Франк, польских евреев, евреев, цыган, язычников, арийской, Синагога Ножиков, нацистов, Гитлера, СС, Варшавского гетто, война, ww2, второй мировой войны, нацистской Германии, концентрация лагеря, 1940-х, солдаты, армия, военная, форма, проверить, контроля, люди, капитуляции Германии, террор, Германия, бой, сражение, оружие, ,

Slovak :

Poľsko, Varšava, Hans Frank, poľských Židov, židovských, Rómovia, pohan, Aryan, Nożyk synagógy, nacistickej, Hitler SS, Varšavského geta, vojnu, ww2, druhá svetová vojna, nacistické Nemecko, koncentrácie tábory, 1940, vojaci, armáda, vojenská, uniformu, kontrola, ovládanie ľudí nemecký kapituláciu, teror, Nemecko, boj, bitka, zbraň, ,

Slovenian :

Poljska, Varšava, Hans Frank, poljski Judje, judovski, Romani ljudi, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk sinagoga, nacistične, Hitler SS, Varšava židovska četrt, vojne, ww2, World war II, nacistični Nemčiji, koncentracija kampi, 1940, vojakov, vojska, vojaška, uniformo, ček, nadzor ljudi, nemški kapitulaciji, teror, Nemčija, boj, boj, orožje, ,

Spanish :

Polonia, Varsovia, Hans Frank, judíos polacos, judíos, romaníes, gentile, Aria, Nożyk sinagoga, nazi, Hitler, SS, gueto de Varsovia, guerra, ww2, segunda guerra mundial, la Alemania Nazi, campos de concentración, de los años cuarenta soldados, uniforme militar, ejército, comprobar, control, gente, capitulación alemana, terror, Alemania, lucha, combate, arma, ,

Swedish :

Polen, Warszawa, Hans Frank, polska judar, judiska, romska människor, gentile, ariska, Nożyk synagogan, nazi, Hitler, SS, Warsaw getto, krig, ww2, andra världskriget, Nazityskland, koncentration läger, 1940-talet, soldater, armé, militär, uniform, kontrollera, kontroll, människor, Tysk kapitulation, terror, Tyskland, kamp, strid, vapen, ,

Turkish :

Polonya, Varşova, Hans Frank, Polonyalı Yahudiler, Yahudi, roman insanlar, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk Sinagogu, nazi, Hitler, SS, Varşova gettosu, savaş, ww2, Dünya Savaşı, Nazi Almanya'sı, toplama kampları, 1940'larda, askerler, askeri, askeri, üniforma, kontrol, kontrol, insanlar, Alman kapitülasyon, terör, Almanya, kavga, savaş, silah, ,

Ukrainian :

Польща, Варшава, Ганса Франка, польських євреїв, єврейських, Romani людей, язичник, арійської, Nożyk синагозі, нацистська, Гітлер СС Варшавське Гетто, війна, 2МВ світової війни II, нацистської Німеччини, концентраційних таборів, 1940-х, солдатів, армія, Уніформа, перевірити, контролю людей німецький капітуляція, терор, Німеччини, боротьба, битва, зброя, ,

Vietnamese :

Ba Lan, warsaw, Hans Frank, Ba Lan người Do Thái, do Thái, người Romani, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk Synagogue, phát xít, Hitler, SS, Warsaw Ghetto, chiến tranh, ww2, chiến tranh thế giới II, phát xít Đức, nồng độ trại, thập niên 1940, binh sĩ, đồng phục quân đội, quân đội, kiểm tra, kiểm soát, người, Đức đầu hàng, khủng bố, Đức, cuộc chiến, trận, vũ khí, ,




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17-09-2010 12:58:17

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