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Politician: Władysław Gomułka and Khrushchev (00:00:09)
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Title:

Politician: Władysław Gomułka and Khrushchev

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Location and time:

Poland, Warsaw, 1956

Description:

The First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party Władysław Gomułka (Polish pronunciation: [vwaˈdɨswaf ɡɔˈmuwka]; 6 February 1905, Krosno - 1 September 1982, Konstancin) was a Polish Communist leader. He was a member of the Communist Party of Poland (Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP) starting in 1926. Gomułka with Leonid Breznev in East Germany In 1934 Gomułka went to Moscow, where he lived for a year. Upon his return to Poland he was arrested and spent most of his time in prison until the beginning of World War II. During the war, Gomułka became an influential Polish Communist and in 1943 convinced Stalin to restore the Polish Workers' Party (Polska Partia Robotnicza). He was a Deputy Prime Minister in the Provisional Government of Republic of Poland - Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, from January to June 1945, and in the Provisional Government of National Unity (Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej), from 1945 to 1947. Using his position in the government, he assisted the Communists in winning the 3 x Tak (3 x Yes) referendum of 1946 and winning the Polish legislative elections, 1947 and became, as he said, "the hegemon of Poland". However, between 1951–1954, skirmishes between various Party factions led to Gomułka's imprisonment, denounced as right-wing and reactionary, and expelled from the Polish United Workers' Party. After the death of Stalinist Prime Minister Bolesław Bierut in 1956, a brief period of de-Stalinization began, raising popular hope for reform. In June 1956, an insurrection began in Poznań. The workers rioted to protest shortages of food and consumer goods, bad housing, decline in genuine income, shipments of commodities to the Soviet Union and poor management of the economy. The Polish government initially responded by branding the rioters "provocateurs, counterrevolutionaries and imperialist agents". Security forces killed and wounded scores of protesters. Soon, however, the party hierarchy recognized the riots had awakened nationalist sentiment and reversed their opinion. The rioters became "honest workers with legitimate grievances". Wages were raised by 50% and economic and political change was promised.[1][2] Gomułka with Nicolae Ceauşescu after the official visit to Romania Edward Ochab, the Polish Prime Minister, invited the now-rehabilitated Gomułka to serve as First Secretary of the Party. Gomułka insisted that he be given real power to implement reforms. One specific condition he set was that the Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky, who had ordered troops against the Poznan workers, be removed from the Polish Politburo and Defense Ministry, to which Ochab agreed. On 19 October, the majority of the Polish leadership, backed by the army and also the Internal Security Corps, brought Gomułka and several associates into the Politburo and designated Gomułka as First Secretary of the Party. The Soviet leadership viewed events in Poland with alarm. Simultaneously with troop 'maneuvers' on the Soviet-Polish border, a high-level delegation of the Soviet Central Committee flew to Poland. It was led by Khrushchev and included Mikoyan, Bulganin, Molotov, Kaganovich, Marshal Konev and others. Gomułka made it clear that Polish troops would resist if Soviet troops advanced, but reassured the Soviets that the reforms were internal matters and that Poland had no intention of abandoning Communism or its treaties with the Soviet Union. The Soviets yielded.[3] Gomułka was confirmed in his new position. Information about events in Poland reached the people of Hungary via Radio Free Europe's news and commentary services during 19 - 22 October 1956. A student demonstration in Budapest in support of Gomułka, asking for similar reforms in Hungary, soon sparked the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Initially very popular for his reforms and seeking a "Polish way to socialism",[4] and beginning an era known as Gomułka's thaw, he came under Soviet pressure. In the 1960s he supported persecution of the Roman Catholic Church and intellectuals (notably Leszek Kołakowski who was forced into exile). He participated in the Warsaw Pact intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. At that time he was also responsible for persecuting students as well as toughening censorship of the media. In 1968 he incited an anti-Zionist propaganda campaign, as a result of Soviet bloc opposition to the Six-Day War.[2] This was a thinly veiled anti-semitic campaign designed to keep himself in power by shifting the attention of the populace from stagnating economy and Communist mismanagement. Gomułka later claimed that this was not deliberate. In December 1970, a bloody clash with shipyard workers in which several dozen workers were fatally shot forced his resignation (officially for health reasons; he had in fact suffered a stroke). A dynamic younger man, Edward Gierek, took over the Party leadership and tensions eased. Gomułka was forced to retire. After his death in 1982 of cancer, his negative image in Communist propaganda was modified and some of his constructive contributions were recognized. His memoirs were first published in 1994.

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Arabic :

الزعيم الشيوعي البولندية، البولندية الحزب الشيوعي، بولندا، فواديسواف Gomułka، خروشوف، سياسي، والشيوعية، والاشتراكية، والدكتاتورية، الكتلة الشرقية، ومعاهدة وارسو، وحرب الباردة، أوروبا الشرقية، الزعيم الشيوعي، "الحزب الشيوعي"، الحزب الأمين العام،,


Bulgarian :

Полски комунистически лидер, полски комунистическата партия, Полша, Владислав Gomułka, Хрушчов, политик, комунизъм, социализъм, диктатура, Източен блок, Варшавския договор, на Студената война, Източна Европа, комунистически лидер, комунистическата партия, партия генерален секретар, ,


Catalan :

Polonès líder comunista, polonès Polònia, Partit Comunista, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, polític, comunisme, socialisme, dictadura, Bloc Oriental, tractat de Varsòvia, una guerra freda, Europa Oriental, líder comunista, Partit Comunista, partit Secretari General, ,


Chinese Simplified :

波兰共产党领袖,波兰共产党党,波兰,瓦迪斯瓦夫 Gomułka,赫鲁晓夫、 政治家、 共产主义、 社会主义,独裁统治,东方集团、 华沙条约、 冷战时期,东欧国家共产党领导人,共产党,党总秘书,


Chinese Traditional :

波蘭共產黨領袖,波蘭共產黨党,波蘭,瓦迪斯瓦夫 Gomułka,赫魯雪夫、 政治家、 共產主義、 社會主義,獨裁統治,東方集團、 華沙條約、 冷戰時期,東歐國家共產黨領導人,共產黨,党總秘書,


Czech :

Polský komunistický vůdce, polské komunistické strany, Polsko, Władysław Gomułka, Chruščov, politik, komunismus, socialismus, diktatura, východního bloku, Varšavská smlouva, studené války, východní Evropy, komunistický vůdce komunistické strany, strany generálního tajemníka, ,


Danish :

Polsk kommunistleder, polske kommunistiske parti, Polen, Władysław Gomułka, Khrusjtjov, politiker, kommunisme, socialisme, diktatur, Østblokken, Warszawa traktaten, en kold krig, Østeuropa, kommunistleder, kommunistiske parti, part generalsekretær, ,


Dutch :

Pools communistisch leider, Pools communistische partij, Polen, Władysław Gomułka, Chroesjtsjov, politicus, communisme, socialisme, dictatuur, Oostblok, Verdrag van Warschau, een koude oorlog, Oost-Europa, communistische leider, communistische partij, partij secretaris-generaal, ,


Estonian :

Poola kommunistliku partei juht, Poola Kommunistliku Partei, Poola, Władysław Gomułka, Hruštšov, poliitik, kommunism, sotsialism, diktatuur, idabloki, Varssavi leping, külm sõda, Ida-Euroopa kommunistliku partei juht, Kommunistliku Partei Partei peasekretär, ,


Finnish :

Puolalainen kommunistijohtaja, Puolan kommunistinen puolue, Puola Władysław Gomułka Hruštšov, poliitikko, kommunismi, sosialismi, diktatuuri, itäblokin, Varsovan sopimus, kylmän sodan Itä-Euroopassa kommunistijohtaja, kommunistisen puolueen, puolueen pääsihteeri,


French :

Polir le dirigeant communiste, polir le parti communiste, la Pologne, Władysław Gomułka, Khrouchtchev, homme politique, communisme, socialisme et dictature, Bloc de l'est, traité de Varsovie, une guerre froide, l'Europe, dirigeant communiste, parti communiste, parti le Secrétaire général, ,


German :

Polnischer kommunistischen Politiker, polnische kommunistische Partei, Polen, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, Politiker, Kommunismus, Sozialismus, Diktatur, Ostblock, Warschauer Vertrag, ein kalter Krieg, Osteuropa, Kommunistenführer, kommunistische Partei, Partei-Generalsekretär,


Greek :

Πολωνικά κομμουνιστή ηγέτη, Πολωνικά κομμουνιστικό κόμμα, Πολωνία, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, πολιτικός, κομμουνισμός, σοσιαλισμός, δικτατορία, ανατολικού μπλοκ, το Σύμφωνο της Βαρσοβίας, ένα ψυχρό πόλεμο, Ανατολική Ευρώπη, κομμουνιστής ηγέτης, Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα, κόμμα Γενικός Γραμματέας, ,


Haitian Creole :

Polonais lidè kominis, poli kominis pati, Polòy, Władysław Gomułka, S', politisyen, sistèm kominis, sosyalis la, diktati, blòk lès la a, se te trete Warsaw, lagè fwèt yon, Ewop de lès, lidè kominis, pati kòminis la, pati Sekretè General,


Hebrew :

פולנית המנהיג הקומוניסטי, לק המפלגה הקומוניסטית, פולין ולדיסלב Gomułka, חרושצ'וב, פוליטיקאי, קומוניזם, סוציאליזם, דיקטטורה, הגוש המזרחי, אמנת ורשה, מלחמה קרה, מזרח אירופה, המנהיג הקומוניסטי, המפלגה הקומוניסטית, מסיבת המזכיר הכללי, ,


Hindi :

पोलिश कम्युनिस्ट नेता, पॉलिश कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी, पोलैंड, Władysław Gomułka, ख्रुश्चेव, राजनीतिज्ञ, साम्यवाद, समाजवाद, तानाशाही, पूर्वी ब्लॉक, वारसा संधि, एक शीत युद्ध, पूर्वी यूरोप, कम्युनिस्ट नेता, कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी, पार्टी महासचिव, ,


Hungarian :

Lengyel Kommunista Párt vezetője, a lengyel kommunista párt, Lengyelország, Władysław Gomułka, Hruscsov, politikus, a kommunizmus, szocializmus, diktatúra, keleti blokk, a Varsói Szerződés, a hidegháború, a kelet-európai kommunista vezető, a kommunista párt, a párt főtitkára, ,


Indonesian :

Polandia pemimpin komunis, Polandia Partai Komunis, Polandia, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, politikus, komunisme, sosialisme, kediktatoran, Blok Timur, Warsawa perjanjian, perang dingin, Eropa Timur, pemimpin komunis, Partai Komunis, Partai Sekretaris Jenderal, ,


Italian :

Polacco leader comunista, lucidare il partito comunista, Polonia Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, politico, comunismo, socialismo, dittatura, blocco orientale, trattato di Varsavia, una guerra fredda, Europa orientale, leader comunista, il partito comunista, partito il Segretario generale, ,


Japanese :

ポーランドの共産主義指導者、共産主義の党、ポーランド、ヴワディスワフ Gomułka、フルシチョフ、政治家、共産主義、社会主義、独裁制、ポーランド東部、ワルシャワの条約、冷戦、東ヨーロッパ、共産主義の指導者、共産党、党書記長,


Korean :

공산주의 지도자 폴란드어, 폴란드어 공산주의자 파티, 폴란드, 브와디스와프 Gomułka, 흐 루시 초 프, 정치가, 공산주의 사회주의 독재, 동구권, 바르샤바 조약, 냉전, 동부 유럽, 공산주의자 지도자, 공산당, 총비서, 파티,


Latvian :

Poļu komunistu līderis, Polijas Komunistiskās partijas, Polija, Vladislavs Gomulka, Hruščovs, politiķis, komunisma, sociālisms, diktatūra, Austrumu bloka, Varšavas līgums, aukstā kara, Austrumeiropā, komunistu vadoni, Komunistiskās partijas, partijas ģenerālsekretārs, ,


Lithuanian :

Lenkijos komunistų lyderis, lenkų komunistų partija, Lenkija, Vladislovas Gomułka, Chruščiovas, politikas, komunizmas, Socializmas, diktatūra, Rytų bloko, Varšuvos sutarties, šaltojo karo metu, Rytų Europoje, komunistų lyderis, komunistų partijos, partijos generalinis sekretorius, ,


Norwegian :

Polsk leder, polske kommunistiske parti, Polen, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, politiker, kommunisme, sosialisme, diktatur, Østblokken, Warszawa-traktaten, en kald krig, Øst-Europa, leder, kommunistiske parti, parti generalsekretær, ,


Polish :

Polski działacz komunistyczny, polski komunistycznej partii, Polska, Władysław Gomułka, Chruszczow, polityk, komunizm, socjalizm, dyktatura, bloku wschodniego, Warszawie Traktatu, zimnej wojny, Europy Wschodniej, działacz komunistyczny, komunistycznej partii, partii sekretarz generalny, ,


Portuguese :

Líder comunista de polonês, polonês partido comunista, Polónia Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, político, comunismo, socialismo, ditadura, Bloc oriental, o Tratado de Varsóvia, uma guerra fria, a Europa Oriental, líder comunista, o partido comunista, partido secretário-geral, ,


Romanian :

Polonez lider comunist, poloneză Partidului Comunist, Polonia, Władysław Gomułka, Hrușciov, Politician, comunismului, socialismului, dictatura, Europa de Est, Tratatul de la Varsovia, un război rece, Europa de Est, lider comunist, Partidul Comunist, Partidul Secretarul General, ,


Russian :

Польский коммунист, польский Коммунистической партии, Польша, Владислав Гомулка, Хрущев, политик, коммунизм, социализм, диктатуры, Восточного блока Варшавского договора, холодная война, Восточная Европа, коммунистический лидер, Коммунистической партии, партии Генеральный секретарь, ,


Slovak :

Poľský komunistický vodca, poľskej komunistickej strany, Poľsko Władysław Gomułka, Chruščov, politik, komunizmus, socializmus, diktatúra, východného bloku, Varšavskej zmluvy, studená vojna, východnej Európy komunistického vodcu, komunistická strana, strany generálny tajomník, ,


Slovenian :

Poljski komunistični voditelj, poljski komunistična stranka, Poljska Władysław Gomułka, Hruščov, politik, komunizem, socializem, diktatura, vzhodnega bloka, Varšavska pogodba, hladne vojne, vzhodni Evropi komunistični vodja komunistične partije, stranka generalni sekretar, ,


Spanish :

Líder comunista Polaco, Polaco Polonia, partido comunista, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, político, comunismo, socialismo, dictadura, bloque, tratado de Varsovia, una guerra fría, Europa Oriental, dirigente comunista, el partido comunista, Secretario General del partido,


Swedish :

Polska kommunistiska ledare, polska kommunistiska partiet, Polen, Władysław Gomułka, Chrusjtjov, politiker, kommunism, socialism, diktatur, östblocket, Warsaw fördrag, ett kallt krig, Östeuropa, kommunistiska ledare, kommunistiska partiet, partiet generalsekreterare, ,


Thai :

ผู้นำคอมมิวนิสต์ของโปแลนด์ โปแลนด์พรรคคอมมิวนิสต์ โปแลนด์ Władysław Gomułka กิตาครุสชอฟ นักการเมือง คอมมิวนิสต์ สังคมนิยม เผด็จการ ค่ายตะวันออก สนธิ สัญญาวอร์ซอว์ สงครามเย็น ยุโรปตะวันออก ผู้นำคอมมิวนิสต์ พรรคคอมมิวนิสต์ พรรคเลขาธิการ,


Turkish :

Komünist lider Polonyalı, Polonya Komünist Partisi, Polonya, Władysław Gomułka, Kruşçev, politikacı, komünizm, sosyalizm, diktatörlük, Doğu bloku, Varşova Antlaşması, soğuk savaş, Doğu Avrupa, komünist lider, komünist parti, parti genel sekreteri, ,


Ukrainian :

Польський Лідер КПУ, польська Комуністичної партії, Польща, Владислав Гомулка, Хрущов, політик, комунізм, соціалізм, диктатури, Східного блоку, Варшавського договору, холодної війни, Східна Європа, комуністичний Лідер КПУ, партія Генерального секретаря, ,


Vietnamese :

Ba Lan lãnh đạo cộng sản, đánh bóng Đảng Cộng sản, Ba Lan, Władysław Gomułka, Khrushchev, chính trị gia, chủ nghĩa cộng sản, chủ nghĩa xã hội, chế độ độc tài, đông khối Hiệp ước Warsaw, một cuộc chiến tranh lạnh, Đông Âu, lãnh đạo cộng sản, Đảng Cộng sản, Đảng Tổng bí thư, ,


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1956

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