Space: Baikonur Cosmodrome - Buran Space Shuttle (00:02:43)
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Space: Baikonur Cosmodrome - Buran Space Shuttle

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Location and time:

Kazakhstan, Baikonur, 1998


Baikonur (Kazakh: Байқоңыр, Bayqoñır, بايقوڭىر; Russian: Байконур, Baykonur), formerly known as Leninsk, is a city in Kyzylorda Province of Kazakhstan, rented and administered by Russia. It was constructed to service the Baikonur Cosmodrome and was officially renamed Baikonur by Russian president Boris Yeltsin on December 20, 1995.

The shape of the area rented is an ellipse, measuring 90 kilometres east to west, by 85 kilometres north to south, with the cosmodrome at the centre.

The original Baikonur is a mining town a few hundred kilometres northeast, near Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan's Karagandy Province. The launch site was given this name to cause confusion and keep the location secret. This town was specifically chosen because the flight path of the rockets that launched many Soviet satellites, including the first Sputnik, passed over its vicinity. The name Baikonur is Kazakh for "wealthy brown", i.e. "fertile land with many herbs". The railway station there, however, predates the base and keeps the old name - Tyuratam.

The fortunes of the city have varied according to those of the Soviet/Russian space program and its Baikonur Cosmodrome.

The Soviet government established the Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Ispytatel'nyi Poligon N.5 (NIIIP-5), or Scientific-Research Test Range N.5 by its decree of 12 February 1955. The U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance plane found and photographed for the first time the Tyuratam missile test range (cosmodrome Baikonur) on 5 August 1957. See a composite satellite image of the early Tyuratam launch complex, the cosmodrome (30 May 1962).

The Baikonur Cosmodrome (Russian: Космодром Байконур, Kosmodrom Baykonur; Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı), also called Tyuratam, is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. It is located in the desert space launch facility, about 200 kilometers (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea, north of the Syr Darya river, near Tyuratam railway station, at 90 metres above sea level. It is leased by the Kazakh government to Russia (currently until 2050) and is managed jointly by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Space Forces. The shape of the area leased is an ellipse, measuring 90 kilometres east-west by 85 kilometres north-south, with the cosmodrome at the centre. It was originally built by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s as the base of operations for its ambitious space program. Under the current Russian space program, Baikonur remains a busy space port, with numerous commercial, military and scientific missions being launched annually.[1]

Vostok 1, the first manned spacecraft in human history, was launched from one of Baikonur's launch pads, which is presently known as Gagarin's Start.

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Catalan :

Cosmòdrom, Rússia, Unió Soviètica, fàbrica de míssils, llançador estació, míssil, espai, personal, coets, Qyzylorda província de Kazakhstan, Cosmòdrom de Baikonur, Kazkh, instal·lació de llançament espacial, Agència Espacial Federal russa, les Forces russes espai, Gagarin, Vostok, Soiuz, estepes del Kazakhstan, nau espacial Buran, transbordador espacial soviètic, Buran, ,

Chinese Traditional :

拜科努爾,俄羅斯、 蘇聯、 導彈工廠、 站發射器、 導彈、 空間、 人員、 火箭,哈薩克斯坦孜省、 拜科努爾航太發射場、 Kazkh、 空間發射設施,俄羅斯聯邦航太署、 俄羅斯航太部隊、 加加林、 沃斯托克、 soyuz、 哈薩克斯坦的大草原上 Buran 航太器,蘇聯的太空梭,暴風雪,,

Czech :

Kosmodromu, Rusko, Sovětský svaz, raketové továrně, stanice spouštěč, rakety, prostor, personál, raketa, Kyzylorda Kazachstánu, kosmodromu Bajkonur, Kazkh, space launch zařízení, ruské federální kosmické agentury, ruské síly vesmíru, Gagarin, Vostok, Sojuz, kazašské stepi, Buran kosmické lodi, Sovětský raketoplán Buran, ,




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11-12-2010 23:06:17

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