Warsaw ghetto: work in German factories (00:00:21)
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Warsaw ghetto: work in German factories

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Location and time:

Poland, Warsaw, 1940s


Warsaw ghetto: Jews are being pushed down the street The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. Frank ordered Jews in Warsaw and its suburbs rounded up and herded into the Ghetto. At this time, the population in the Ghetto was estimated to be 400,000 people, about 30% of the population of Warsaw; however, the size of the Ghetto was about 2.4% of the size of Warsaw. The ghetto was split into two areas, the "small ghetto", generally inhabited by richer Jews and the "large ghetto", where conditions were more difficult; the two ghettos were linked by a single footbridge. The Nazis then closed the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world on November 16, 1940, by building a wall, topped with barbed wire, and deploying armed guards. A child dying in the streets of the Warsaw Ghetto Dead bodies in the ghetto, 25 May 1941 During the next year and a half, thousands of the Polish Jews as well as some Romani people from smaller cities and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto, while diseases (especially typhus), and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number. Average food rations in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw were limited to 186 cal, compared to 1,669 cal for gentile Poles and 2,614 cal for Germans. Unemployment was a major problem in the ghetto. Illegal workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold illegally on the outside and raw goods were smuggled in often by children. Hundreds of four to five year old Jewish children went across en masse to the "Aryan side", sometimes several times a day, smuggling food into the ghettos, returning with goods that often weighed more than they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation. Despite the grave hardships, life in the Warsaw Ghetto was rich with educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of a soup kitchen. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. The life in the ghetto was chronicled by the Oyneg Shabbos group. Over 100,000 of the Ghetto's residents died due to rampant disease or starvation, as well as random killings, even before the Nazis began massive deportations of the inhabitants from the Ghetto's Umschlagplatz to the Treblinka extermination camp during the Grossaktion Warschau, part of the countrywide Operation Reinhard. Between Tisha B'Av (July 23) and Yom Kippur (September 21) of 1942, about 254,000 Ghetto residents (or at least 300,000 by different accounts) were sent to Treblinka and murdered there. In 1942 Polish resistance officer Jan Karski reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight. On January 18, 1943, the first instance of armed resistance occurred when the Germans started the final expulsion of the remaining Jews. The Jewish fighters had some success: the expulsion stopped after four days and the ŻOB and ŻZW resistance organizations took control of the Ghetto, building shelters and fighting posts and operating against Jewish collaborators. The final battle started on the eve of Passover of April 19, 1943, when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, the Germans under the field command of Jürgen Stroop systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 23, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminated with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw on May 16. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps, most of them to Treblinka.

Other languages: show / hide

Arabic :

بولندا، وارسو، "البولندية اليهود" واليهودية، والشعب الروماني، ومشرك، الآرية، ومعبد Nożyk، والنازية، هتلر، SS، غيتو وارسو، والحرب، و ww2، الحرب العالمية الثانية، ألمانيا النازية، معسكرات الاعتقال، الأربعينات من القرن الماضي، دفعت، العمل، المصانع الألمانية، فوكتوري، والنجارة، الخياطة،,

Bulgarian :

Полша, Варшава, полски евреи, евреи, цигани, езичник, арийски, Nożyk синагога, нацистки, Хитлер, СС, Варшавското гето, война, ww2, Втората световна война, нацистка Германия, концентрационни лагери, 1940, избута надолу, работа, германските фабрики, foctory, дърводелство, шивачество, ,

Catalan :

Polònia, Varsòvia, jueus polonesos, jueus, gitanos, gentil, ària, Nożyk sinagoga, nazi, Hitler, SS, gueto de Varsòvia, guerra, 2 ª Guerra Mundial, la Segona Guerra Mundial, l'Alemanya Nazi, camps de concentració, dels anys 1940, aguantar, treball, les fàbriques alemanyes, foctory, fusteria, sastreria, ,

Chinese Simplified :

波兰, 华沙, 波兰犹太人, 犹太人, 罗姆人, 非犹太人, 雅利安, Nożyk 犹太教会, 纳粹, 希特勒, 党卫军, 华沙 Ghetto, war, ww2, World 战争 II, 纳粹德国, 集中 camps, 1940s, pushed 下来, 工作, 德国工厂, foctory, 木工, 裁缝, ,

Chinese Traditional :

波蘭, 華沙, 波蘭猶太人, 猶太人, 羅姆人, 非猶太人, 雅利安, Nożyk 猶太教會, 納粹, 希特勒, 党衛軍, 華沙 Ghetto, war, ww2, World 戰爭 II, 納粹德國, 集中 camps, 1940s, pushed 下來, 工作, 德國工廠, foctory, 木工, 裁縫, ,

Czech :

Polsko, Varšava, polských Židů, židovské, Romové, gentile, árijský, Nożyk synagoga, nacista, Hitler, SS, varšavského ghetta, válka, ww2, světové války, nacistické Německo, koncentrační tábory, 1940, stlačí, práce, německých továrnách, foctory, tesařské práce, šití, ,

Danish :

Polen, Warszawa, polske jøder, jødiske, roma-folket, gentile, ariske, Nożyk synagoge, nazistiske, Hitler, SS, Warszawa Ghetto, krig, ww2, anden verdenskrig, Nazityskland, koncentrationslejre, 1940 ' erne, skubbet ned, arbejde, tyske fabrikker, foctory, tømrerarbejde, skrædderi, ,

Dutch :

Polen, Warschau, Poolse joden, joodse, Roma, gentile, Arische, Nożyk synagoge, nazi, Hitler, SS, het getto van Warschau, oorlog, ww2, tweede Wereldoorlog, de nazi-Duitsland, de concentratiekampen, jaren 1940, ingedrukt, werk, Duitse fabrieken, foctory, timmerwerk, afstemmen, ,

Estonian :

Poola, Varssavi, Poola juudi juudid, mustlased, gentile, aaria, Nożyk sünagoog, nats, Hitler, SS, Varssavi geto, sõda, ww2, II maailmasõda, natsi-Saksamaa, nendeks, 1940, surutakse alla, töö, saksa tehased, foctory, puutöö, õmblemine, ,

Finnish :

Puola, Varsova, Puolan juutalaisia, juutalaiset, romanit, pakana, arjalainen, kuten Nożyk synagoga, natsi, Hitler, SS, Warsaw Ghetto, sota, ww2, World war II, natsi-Saksan keskitysleirien, 1940, painetaan alas WC, Saksan tehtaat, foctory, puusepäntyöt, räätälöintiä, ,

French :

Pologne, Varsovie, les Juifs polonais, Juifs, Roms, gentile, Aryan, Synagogue de Nożyki, nazi, Hitler, SS, du Ghetto de Varsovie, war, ww2, la seconde guerre mondiale, l’Allemagne nazie, les camps de concentration, des années 1940, poussé vers le bas, travail, usines allemandes, foctory, menuiserie, couture, ,

German :

Polen, Warschau, polnischer Juden, Juden, Roma, Heide, Aryan, Nożyk Synagoge, Nazi, Hitler, SS, Warschauer Ghetto, Krieg, 2. Weltkrieg, Zweiter Weltkrieg, Nationalsozialismus, Konzentrationslager, 1940er Jahre, gedrückt, Arbeit, deutschen Fabriken, Foctory, Tischlerei, Schneiderei, ,

Greek :

Πολωνία, Βαρσοβία, πολωνικοί Εβραίοι, Εβραίοι, Ρομά, Τζεντίλε, άρια, Nożyk Συναγωγή, Ναζί, ο Χίτλερ, SS, γκέτο της Βαρσοβίας, πόλεμος, ww2, β ' Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, η ναζιστική Γερμανία, στρατόπεδα συγκέντρωσης, του 1940, ωθείται προς τα κάτω, εργασία, Γερμανικά εργοστάσια, foctory, ξυλουργικές εργασίες, ραπτική, ,

Haitian Creole :

Poland, Vasovi, Lapolòy jwif yo, jwif yo, moun Romani, soupl, Aryenne, Nożyk sinagòg, nazi, Hitler, SS, geto Warsaw, lagè, ww2, gè MONDYAL, Almay Nazi, konsantrasyon kan yo, 40, jete, travay, faktori Alman yo, foctory, -, personnalisation, ,

Hebrew :

פולין, ורשה, יהודים פולנים, יהודים, צוענים, גוי, הארי, בית הכנסת נוז'יק, נאצים, היטלר, אס. אס, גטו ורשה, מלחמה, ww2, מלחמת העולם השנייה, גרמניה הנאצית, מחנות הריכוז, שנות ה-40, נדחף למטה, עבודה, מפעלים גרמניים, foctory, נגרות, תפירה, ,

Hindi :

पोलैंड, वारसॉ, पोलिश यहूदी, यहूदी, रोमाणि लोग, अंयजातियों, आर्यन, Nożyk आराधनालय, नाजी, हिटलर, एसएस, वारसॉ यहूदी बस्ती, युद्ध, ww2, द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध, नाजी जर्मनी, एकाग्रता शिविरों, 1940, नीचे धकेल दिया, काम, जर्मन कारखानों, foctory, बढ़ईगीरी, सिलाई, ,

Hungarian :

Lengyelország, Varsó, lengyel zsidó, zsidó, Roma, zsidó, árja, Nożyk zsinagóga, náci, Hitler, a SS, a Varsói gettó, a háború, a ww2, második világháború, a náci Németország, a koncentrációs táborok, tolt le, munka, német gyárak, foctory, asztalos, szabás, 1940-es években,

Indonesian :

Polandia, Warsawa, Polandia-Yahudi, Yahudi, orang Romani, kafir, Aryan, Nożyk Synagogue, nazi, Hitler, SS, Ghetto Warsawa, perang, ww2, Perang Dunia II, Nazi Jerman, kamp-kamp konsentrasi, 1940-an, didorong ke bawah, pekerjaan, pabrik, foctory, tukang kayu, menjahit, ,

Italian :

Polonia, Varsavia, ebrei polacchi, ebrei, ROM, gentile, Ariana, Nożyk Synagogue, nazista, Hitler, SS, Ghetto di Varsavia, guerra, ww2, seconda guerra mondiale, la Germania nazista, campi di concentramento, 1940, spinto verso il basso, lavoro, fabbriche tedesche, foctory della falegnameria, sartoria, ,

Japanese :

ポーランド、ワルシャワ、ポーランド系ユダヤ人、ユダヤ人、ロマ、ジェンティーレ、アーリア人、Nożyk シナゴーグ、ナチス、ヒトラー、SS、ワルシャワのゲットー、戦争、ww2 の第二次世界大戦、ナチス ・ ドイツ強制収容所、1940 年代、プッシュ ダウン、作業、ドイツの工場、foctory、大工、仕立て、,

Korean :

폴란드, 바르샤바, 폴란드 유대인, 유태인, Romani 사람들, 이방인, 아리아, Nożyk 회당, 나치, 히틀러, SS, 와르소 유대인 거리, 전쟁, ww2, 제 2 차 세계 대전, 나치 독일 강제 수용소, 1940, 푸시, 작업, 독일 공장, 공장, 목공, 조정, ,

Latvian :

Polija, Varšava, Polijas ebreju ebreji, čigāni, gentile, āriešu, Nożyk sinagogu, nacistu, Hitlers, SS, Varšavas geto, kara, ww2, II pasaules kara, nacistiskās Vācijas koncentrācijas nometnēs, 1940s, uzstāja uz leju, darbs, Vācijas rūpnīcām, foctory, galdniecībā, pielāgojot, ,

Lithuanian :

Lenkija, Varšuva, Lenkijos žydų, žydų, romų tautybės žmonių, pagonių, arijų, Nożyk sinagoga, nacių, Hitleris, SS, Varšuvos getas, karo, ww2, antrojo pasaulinio karo, nacistinės Vokietijos, koncentracijos stovyklos, 1940-aisiais, stumti žemyn, darbo, staliaus, siuvimo, foctory Vokietijos gamyklų, ,

Norwegian :

Polen, Warszawa, polske jøder, jødiske, sigøynere, hedninger, ariske, Nożyk synagogen, nazi, Hitler, SS, ghettoen, krig, ww2, andre VERDENSKRIG, Nazi-Tyskland, konsentrasjonsleirer, 1940 presset ned, arbeid, tysk fabrikker, foctory, snekkerarbeid, skreddersøm, ,

Polish :

Polska, Warszawa, polskich Żydów, żydowskiej, Romowie, gentile, Aryan, bóżnica, nazistowskich, Hitler, SS, warszawskiego getta, wojny, ww2, II wojny światowej, Niemcy hitlerowskie obozy koncentracyjne, 1940, Spychała, pracy, niemieckiej fabryki, foctory, Stolarka, krawiectwo, ,

Portuguese :

Polônia, Varsóvia, judeus polacos, judeus, ciganos, gentile, Ariana, sinagoga Nożyk, nazista, Hitler SS, gueto de Varsóvia, guerra, 2ª Guerra Mundial, segunda guerra mundial, a Alemanha nazista, campos de concentração, de 1940, empurrado para baixo, o trabalho de fábricas alemãs, foctory, carpintaria, alfaiataria, ,

Romanian :

Polonia, Varșovia, evreilor polonezi, evreilor, rromilor, gentile, ariene, Nożyk Synagogue, nazistă, Hitler, SS, ghetoul Varșovia, război, ww2, al doilea război mondial, Germania nazistă, lagărele de concentrare, 1940, împins în jos, locul de muncă, fabrici de germană, foctory, tâmplărie, croitorie, ,

Russian :

Польша, Варшава, польских евреев, евреев, цыган, Джентиле, арийской, Синагога Ножиков, нацистской, Гитлер, SS, Варшавском гетто, войны, ww2, второй мировой войны, нацистской Германии, концентрационные лагеря, в 1940-х годов толкнул вниз, работы, немецкие заводы, foctory, столярные изделия, пошив одежды, ,

Slovak :

Poľsko, Varšava, poľských Židov, židovských, Rómovia, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk synagóga, nacistickej, Hitler SS, Varšavského geta, vojnu, ww2, svetovej vojny, nacistické Nemecko, koncentračné tábory, 1940, stlačí, tesárske práce, šitie, práce, nemeckých tovární, foctory,

Slovenian :

Poljska, Varšava, poljski Judje, judovski, Romani ljudi, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk sinagoga, nacistične, Hitler, SS, Varšava židovska četrt, vojne ww2, WEHRMACHTA, nacistični Nemčiji, koncentracijska taborišča, 1940, nižajo, delo nemških tovarn, foctory, mizarstvo, krojenje, ,

Swedish :

Polen, Warszawa, polska judarna, judiska, romska personer, gentile, ariska, Nożyk synagoga, nazist, SS, krig, Warszawas getto, Hitler, ww2, andra världskriget, Nazityskland, koncentrationsläger, 1940-talet, nedtryckt, arbete, tyska fabriker, foctory, snickeri, sömnad, ,

Thai :

โปแลนด์ วอร์ซอ โปแลนด์ ชาวยิว ชาวยิว ชาวโรมานี เวอร์จิ้น อารยัน โบสถ์ Nożyk นา ซี ฮิตเลอร์ SS วอร์ซอเกตโต สงคราม ww2 สงครามโลก นาซีเยอรมนี ค่ายกักกัน ปี 1940 ผลักลง ทำงาน โรงงานเยอรมัน foctory ช่าง ไม้ ตัดเย็บ,

Turkish :

Polonya, Varşova, Polonya Yahudiler, Yahudi, roman insanlar, gentile, Aryan, Nożyk Sinagogu, nazi, Hitler, SS, Varşova gettosu, savaş, ww2, İkinci Dünya Savaşı, Nazi Almanya'sı, toplama kampları, itti iş, Alman fabrikaları, foctory, marangozluk, terzilik, aşağı, 1940'larda, ,




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13-12-2010 21:31:40

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