Occupation: the Occupation of the Ruhr from France and Belgium troops, 1923 (00:00:18)
Original video: Ist Olympic Winter, Chamonix, 1924 (00:07:16)

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Occupation: the Occupation of the Ruhr from France and Belgium troops, 1923

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Germany, 1923


The Occupation of the Ruhr between 1923 and 1925, by troops from France and Belgium, was a response to the failure of the German Weimar Republic under Chancellor Cuno to pay reparations in the aftermath of World War I.


By late 1922, the German defaults on payments had grown so serious and regular that a crisis engulfed the Reparations Commission as the French and Belgian delegates urging the seizure of the Ruhr as a way of encouraging the Germans to make more effort to pay, and the British delegate urging a lowering of the payments.[1] As a consequence of an enormous German default on timber deliveries in December 1922, the Reparations Commission declared Germany in default, which led to the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr in January 1923.[2] Particularly galling to the French was that the timber quota which the Germans had defaulted was based on a German assessment of their capacity to deliver and then had subsequently been lowered from below the German assessment.[3] There was little doubt among the Allies that the government of Chancellor Wilhelm Cuno had defaulted on the timber deliveries deliberately as a way of testing the will of the Allies to enforce the treaty.[3] Providing more fuel for the fire was a German default on coal deliveries in early January 1923, which was the thirty-fourth coal default in the last thirty-six months.[4] The French Premier Raymond Poincaré was deeply reluctant to order the Ruhr occupation and took this step only after the British had rejected his proposals for more moderate sanctions against Germany.[5] Frustrated at Germany's unwillingness to pay reparations, Poincaré hoped for joint Anglo-French economic sanctions against Germany in 1922 and opposed military action. However by December 1922 he was faced with Anglo-American-German opposition and saw coal for French steel production and money for reconstructing the devastated industrial areas draining away. Poincaré was exasperated with British failure to act, and wrote to the French ambassador in London:
French Chasseurs Alpins in Buer

"Judging others by themselves, the English, who are blinded by their loyalty, have always thought that the Germans did not abide by their pledges inscribed in the Versailles Treaty because they had not frankly agreed to them. ... We, on the contrary, believe that if Germany, far from making the slightest effort to carry out the treaty of peace, has always tried to escape her obligations, it is because until now she has not been convinced of her defeat. ... We are also certain that Germany, as a nation, resigns herself to keep her pledged word only under the impact of necessity".[6]

Poincaré decided to occupy the Ruhr in 11 January 1923 to extract the reparations himself. The real issue during the Ruhrkampf (Ruhr struggle) in 1923 as the Germans labelled the battle against the French occupation was not the German defaults on coal and timber deliveries but the sanctity of the Versailles treaty.[7] Poincaré often argued to the British that if the Germans could get away with defying Versailles in regards to the reparations, then a precedent would be created, and inevitably the Germans would later proceed to dismantle the rest of the Versailles treaty.[8] Finally, Poincaré argued that once the chains that had bound Germany in Versailles had been destroyed, then it was inevitable that Germany would once more plunge the world back into another world war.[8]

Initiated by French Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré, the invasion took place on January 11, 1923, with the aim of occupying the centre of German coal, iron and steel production in the Ruhr area valley, in order to gain the money that Germany owed. France had the iron ore and Germany had the coal. Each state wished to obtain free access to the resource it was short of, as together both resources had far more value than each resource valued separately. (Eventually this problem was resolved in the European Coal and Steel community.)

Following France's decision to invade the Ruhr[9], the Inter-Allied Mission for Control of Factories and Mines [M.I.C.U.M.][10] was set up as a means of ensuring coal repayments from Germany.[11]

Other languages: show / hide

Arabic :

ألمانيا، فرنسا، وبلجيكا، والاحتلال، روهر، القوات، 1923، العسكريين والجنود، دبابات، جمهورية فايمار الألمانية، والمستشار كونو، عقب الحرب العالمية الأولى، تعويضات، البينس Chasseurs الفرنسية، جسر، الدبابات، أعضاء الفرقة، والوزن، والجيش، والفرقة الموسيقية العسكرية،,

Catalan :

Alemanya, França, Bèlgica, ocupació, Ruhr, tropes, 1923, militar, soldats, tanc, República de Weimar alemany, Canceller Cuno, arran de la Guerra Mundial, reparacions, climes Chasseurs francesos, pont, tancs, soldats, pes, l'exèrcit, la banda militar, ,

Chinese Traditional :

德國、 法國、 比利時、 佔領、 魯爾、 軍隊,1923 年,軍事、 士兵、 坦克,德國魏瑪共和國、 大臣諾、 善後賠償,世界大戰法國獵 Alpins,橋樑、 坦克、 騎兵、 重量、 部隊、 軍樂團、,

Czech :

Německo, Francie, Belgie, okupace, Porúří, vojáci, 1923, vojenské, vojáci, tanku, německá Výmarská republika, kancléř Cuno, následky 1.světové války, reparace, francouzský Chasseurs Alpins, most, tanky, vojáci, hmotnost, armáda, vojenská kapela, ,

Dutch :

Duitsland, Frankrijk, België, bezetting, Ruhr, troepen, 1923, militaire, soldaten, tank, Duitse Weimar Republiek, kanselier Cuno, nasleep van Wereldoorlog I, herstelbetalingen, Franse Chasseurs Alpins, brug, tanks, troopers, gewicht, leger, militaire band, ,

German :

Deutschland, Frankreich, Belgien, Beruf, Ruhr, Truppen, 1923, Militär, Soldaten, Panzer, deutschen Weimarer Republik, Reichskanzler Cuno, Nachwirkungen des ersten Weltkrieges, Reparationen, französische Chasseurs Alpins, Brücke, Panzer, Soldaten, Gewicht, Heer, Militärkapelle, ,

Greek :

Γερμανία, Γαλλία, Βέλγιο, κατοχή, Ρουρ, στρατεύματα, 1923, στρατιωτική, στρατιώτες, δεξαμενή, Γερμανική Δημοκρατία Weimar, καγκελάριος Cuno, μετά της θ ' Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, επιδιορθώσεις, γαλλική Alpins κατόρθωσαν, γέφυρα, δεξαμενές, στρατιώτες, βάρος, στρατός, στρατιωτική μπάντα, ,

Haitian Creole :

Almay, peyi Lafwans, Bèljik, okipasyon, Ruhr, twoup yo, 1923, militè, sòlda, tank, Repiblik Weimar Alman, Chanselye Cuno, suite de gè mondyal, réparations, Fwansè Chasseurs Alpins, pon, dan vise, tank, patwouy polisye, poids, lame, bann militè, ,

Hebrew :

גרמניה, צרפת, בלגיה, כיבוש, רוהר, חיילים, 1923, צבא, חיילים, טנקים, רפובליקת ויימאר הגרמנית, קאנצלר Cuno, התוצאות של מלחמת העולם, פיצויים, Alpins Chasseurs צרפתי, גשר, טנקים, חיילים, משקל, צבא, תזמורת צה ל, ,

Latvian :

Vācijā, Francijā, Beļģijā, nodarbošanās, Rūras, karaspēks, 1923, militāro, karavīru, tvertne, Vācijas Veimāras republika, kanclers Cuno, pēc I pasaules kara reparācijas, Francijas Chasseurs Alpins tilts, tankus, kavalēristi, svars, armijas militārā grupa, ,

Polish :

Niemcy, Francja, Belgia, zawód, Ruhr, wojska, 1923, wojskowych, żołnierzy, czołgów, niemiecki Republiki Weimarskiej, kanclerz Cuno, skutki i wojny światowej, odszkodowań, francuski Chasseurs Alpins, most, zbiorniki, żołnierzy, wagi, armia, Orkiestra wojskowa, ,

Portuguese :

Alemanha, França, Bélgica, ocupação, Ruhr, tropas, 1923, militares, soldados, tanque, República de Weimar alemã, o Chanceler Cuno, o rescaldo da i Guerra Mundial, reparações, francês Chasseurs Alpins, ponte, tanques, soldados, peso, exército, banda militar, ,

Slovenian :

Nemčija, Francija, Belgija, poklic, Ruhr, vojakov, 1923, vojaške, vojaki, tank, nemško Weimarska republika, kancler Cuno, posledice prve svetovne vojne, reparacij, francoski Chasseurs Alpins, most, tanki, vojaki, teža, vojske, vojaških pas, ,

Thai :

เยอรมนี ฝรั่งเศส เบลเยียม อาชีพ Ruhr ทหาร 1923 ทหาร ทหาร รถถัง สาธารณ รัฐไวมาร์เยอรมัน Cuno ชานเซลเลอร์ ผลพวงของสงครามโลก สงคราม ฝรั่งเศส Chasseurs Alpins สะพาน ถัง ทรูปเปอร์ น้ำหนัก กองทัพ ทหารวง,

Turkish :

Almanya, Fransa, Belçika, işgal, Ruhr, asker, 1923, askeri, askerler, tank, Almanya Weimar Cumhuriyeti, Şansölye Cuno, ı. Dünya Savaşı, tazminat, sonrasında Fransız Chasseurs Alpins, köprü, tanklar, eyalet polisi, ağırlık, ordu, askeri bando, ,

Ukrainian :

Німеччини, Франції, Бельгії, окупації, Рура, війська, 1923, військового, солдати, танк, німецька Веймарська республіка, канцлер Cuno, після першої світової війни, репарацій, французький єгерський Alpins, міст, танки, солдати, ваги, військо, військового оркестру,




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Original video: Ist Olympic Winter, Chamonix, 1924
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27-12-2010 23:35:30

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