Penicillin: Sir Alexander Fleming -photo (00:00:10)
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Penicillin: Sir Alexander Fleming -photo

Rights-Managed, Footage

Location and time:

United Kingdom, 1945


Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi.[1] Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced

Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II.

Other languages: show / hide

Arabic :

ألكسندر فليمنغ، المضادات الحيوية، والبكتيريا، واكتشاف، التاريخ، المؤرخين، التاريخ، تاريخ البشرية، الماضي البشري، المرض، الإصابات، مختبر، العدسة، الطب، الماضي، البنسلين، Penicillium، صور، البحوث، باحث، المكوّرات العنقودية، الوقت، المتحدة المملكة,

Bulgarian :

Александър Флеминг, антибиотик, бактерии, откритие, historia, историци, историята, човешката история, човешкото минало, заболяване, инфекции, лаборатория, лупа, медицина, миналото, пеницилин, Penicillium, Фото, изследвания, изследовател, Staphylococcus, време, САЩ Кралство,

Catalan :

Alexander Fleming, antibiòtic, bacteris, descobriment, historia, historiadors, història, història de la humanitat, passat humà, malalties, infeccions, laboratori, loupe, medicina, passat, penicil·lina, Penicillium, fotos, recerca, investigador, Staphylococcus, temps, Regne Unit,

Chinese Simplified :

亚历山大弗莱明, 抗生素, 细菌, 发现, historia, 史学家, 历史, 人类历史, 人类过去, 疾病, 感染, 实验室, 放大镜, 医学, 过去, 青霉素, 青霉, 照片, 研究, 研究员, 葡萄球菌, 时间, 联合王国,

Chinese Traditional :

亞歷山大弗萊明, 抗生素, 細菌, 發現, historia, 史學家, 歷史, 人類歷史, 人類過去, 疾病, 感染, 實驗室, 放大鏡, 醫學, 過去, 青黴素, 青黴, 照片, 研究, 研究員, 葡萄球菌, 時間, 聯合王國,

Czech :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotikum, bakterie, Discovery, historia, historici, historie, lidské historie, minulost lidstva, nemoci, infekce, laboratorní, Lupa, medicína, minulosti, penicilin, Penicillium, fotografie, výzkum, výzkumník, Staphylococcus, čas, Velká Království,

Danish :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotikum, bakterier, Discovery, historia, historikere, historie, menneskets historie, menneskelige fortiden, sygdom, infektioner, laboratorium, lup, medicin, tidligere, penicillin, Penicillium, foto, forskning, forsker, Staphylococcus, tid, Forenede Kongerige,

Dutch :

Alexander Fleming, antibioticum, bacteriën, Discovery historia, historici, geschiedenis, geschiedenis van de mens, menselijke verleden, ziekte, infecties, laboratorium, loupe, geneeskunde, verleden, penicilline, Penicillium, foto, onderzoek, onderzoeker, Staphylococcus, tijd, Verenigd Koninkrijk,

Estonian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiootikum, bakterid, Discovery, historia, ajaloolased, ajalugu, inimkonna ajaloos, inimeste minevikku, haigus, infektsioonid, labor, Luup, meditsiin, varem, penitsilliini, Penicillium, foto, teadus, teadlane, Staphylococcus, aeg, Ameerika Suurbritannia,

Finnish :

Alexander Fleming, antibiootti, bakteerit, Discovery, historia, historioitsijat, historia, ihmiskunnan historian, ihmisen aiemmin, sairaus, infektiot, laboratorio, Luuppi, lääke, aiemmin, penisilliini, Penicillium, valokuva, tutkimus, tutkija, Staphylococcus, aika, Iso Kuningaskunta,

French :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotiques, les bactéries, découverte, historia, historiens, histoire, histoire de l’humanité, passé humain, maladies, infections, laboratoire, loupe, médecine, passé, pénicilline, Penicillium, photo, recherche, chercheur, Staphylococcus, time, Etats-Unis Royaume,

German :

Alexander Fleming, Antibiotikum, Bakterien, Entdeckung, Historia, Historiker, Geschichte, Menschheitsgeschichte, menschliche Vergangenheit, Krankheit, Infektionen, Labor, Lupe, Medizin, Vergangenheit, Penicillin, Penicillium, Foto, Forschung, wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin, Staphylococcus, Zeit, Vereinigte Königreich,

Greek :

Αλεξάντερ Φλέμινγκ, αντιβιοτικά, βακτήρια, ανακάλυψη, historia, ιστορικοί, ιστορία, ανθρώπινη ιστορία, ανθρώπινο παρελθόν, ασθένεια, λοιμώξεις, εργαστήριο, φακό, ιατρική, παρελθόν, πενικιλίνη, Penicillium, φωτογραφία, έρευνα, ερευνητής, σταφυλόκοκκος, χρόνος, Ελλάδα Βασίλειο,

Haitian Creole :

Alexander Fleming, antibyotik, bakteri, jwenn, historia, istoryen yo, istwa, istwa imen, depi lontan moun, maladi, enfeksyon, laboratwa, loupe, medikaman, depi lontan, pelisilin, Penicillium, foto, rechèch ki fèt, chèchè, Staphylococcus, fwa, nan Gouvènman,

Hebrew :

אלכסנדר פלמינג, אנטיביוטיקה, חיידקים, גילוי, historia, היסטוריונים, ההיסטוריה, ההיסטוריה האנושית, אנוש, מחלות, זיהומים, מעבדה, זכוכית מגדלת, רפואה, העבר, פניצילין, Penicillium צילום, מחקר, חוקר, סטפילוקוקוס, זמן, ארצות הממלכה,

Hindi :

अलेक्जेंडर फ्लेमिंग, एंटीबायोटिक, बैक्टीरिया, डिस्कवरी, हिस्टोरिया, इतिहासकार, इतिहास, मानव इतिहास, मानव अतीत, बीमारी, संक्रमण, प्रयोगशाला, loupe, चिकित्सा, अतीत, पेनिसिलिन, Penicillium, फोटो, अनुसंधान, शोधकर्ता, Staphylococcus, समय, संयुक्त किंगडम,

Hungarian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotikum, a baktériumokat, felfedezés, historia, történészek, történelem, emberi történelem, emberi múlt, betegség, fertőzések, laboratóriumi, nagyító, orvostudomány, múlt, penicillin, Penicillium, Fénykép, kutatás, kutató, Staphylococcus, idő, Egyesült Királyság,

Indonesian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotik, bakteri, penemuan, historia, sejarawan, sejarah, sejarah manusia, masa lalu manusia, penyakit, infeksi, laboratorium, pembesar, Kedokteran, masa lalu, penisilin, Penicillium, foto, penelitian, peneliti, Staphylococcus, waktu, Inggris Raya,

Italian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotico, batteri, Discovery, historia, storici, storia, storia umana, passato umano, malattia, infezioni, laboratorio, lente di ingrandimento, medicina, passato, penicillina, Penicillium, foto, ricerca, ricercatore, Staphylococcus, tempo, Uniti Unito,

Japanese :

アレクサンダー ・ フレミング、抗生物質、細菌、発見、ヒストリア、歴史家、歴史、人間の歴史、人間の過去、病気、感染症、研究室、ルーペ、医学、過去、ペニシリン、ペニシリウム、写真、研究、研究員、黄色ブドウ球菌、時間、アメリカ王国,

Korean :

알렉산더 플레밍, 항생제, 박테리아, 발견, 역사, 역사, 역사, 인간의 역사, 인간의 과거, 질병, 감염, 실험실, 루 페, 의학, 과거, 페니실린, 푸른 곰 팡이, 사진, 연구, 연구원, 황색, 시간, 미국 왕국,

Latvian :

Aleksandrs Flemings, antibiotikas, baktērijas, Discovery, historia, vēsturnieki, vēsturi, cilvēces vēsturē, cilvēku pagātnes, slimības, infekcijas, laboratorijas, lupas, medicīna, pagātni, penicilīnu, Penicillium, foto, pētniecība, pētnieks, Staphylococcus, laiks, Apvienotā Karaliste,

Lithuanian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotikų, bakterijos, atradimas, historia, istorikai, istorija, žmonijos istorijoje, žmogaus praeitį, ligos, infekcijos, laboratorija, lupos, medicina, praeities, penicilinas, Penicillium, nuotraukų, mokslinių tyrimų, mokslo, Staphylococcus, laikas, Didžioji Karalystė,

Norwegian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotika, bakterier, Discovery, historia, historikere, historie, menneskets historie, menneskelige fortiden, sykdom, infeksjoner, laboratorium, forstørrelsesglass, medisin, siste, penicillin, penicillin, foto, forskning, forsker, Staphylococcus, tid, USA Storbritannia,

Polish :

Alexander Fleming, antybiotyki, bakterie, Discovery, historia, historyków, historii, historii ludzkości, ludzkiej przeszłości, choroby, infekcje, laboratorium, Lupa, medycyna, przeszłości, penicyliny, Penicillium, Zdjęcie, badania, badacz, Staphylococcus, czas, Stany Zjednoczone Brytania,

Portuguese :

Alexander Fleming, antibiótico, bactéria, descoberta, historia, historiadores, história, história da humanidade, passado humano, doença, infecções, laboratório, lupa, medicina, passado, penicilina, Penicillium, foto, investigação, investigador, Staphylococcus, tempo, Unidos Reino,

Romanian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotic, bacterii, descoperire, historia, istorici, istorie, istoria omenirii, uman trecut, boli, infecţii, laborator, lupă, medicina, trecut, penicilina, Penicillium, Foto, cercetare, cercetător, Staphylococcus, timp, Marea Britanie,

Slovak :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotiká, baktérie, Discovery, historia, historikov, História, ľudských dejín, ľudskej minulosti, choroby, infekcie, laboratórium, Lupa, medicína, minulosti, penicilín, Penicillium, foto, výskum, výskumný pracovník, Staphylococcus, čas, Veľká Kráľovstvo,

Slovenian :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotik, bakterije, Discovery, historia, zgodovinarji, zgodovina, človeški zgodovini, človeške preteklosti, bolezni, okužbe, laboratorij, Lupa, medicine, preteklosti, penicilin, Penicillium, fotografija, raziskave, raziskovalec, Staphylococcus, čas, Velika Britanija,

Swedish :

Alexander Fleming, antibiotikum, bakterier, Discovery, historia, historiker, historia, mänsklighetens historia, mänskliga förflutna, sjukdom, infektioner, laboratorium, lupp, medicin, förflutna, penicillin, Penicillium, Foto, forskning, forskare, Staphylococcus, tid, Sverige Kungariket,

Thai :

อเล็กซานเดอร์เฟลมมิง ยาปฏิชีวนะ แบคทีเรีย ค้นพบ historia ประวัติศาสตร์ ประวัติ ประวัติศาสตร์ของมนุษย์ มนุษย์อดีต เจ็บป่วย ติดเชื้อ ห้องปฏิบัติการ loupe แพทย์ อดีต ยา เพนนิซิลลิน ศาสตราจารย์ ภาพ วิจัย นัก วิจัย Staphylococcus เวลา ไทย ราชอาณาจักร,

Turkish :

Alexander Fleming, antibiyotik, bakteri, keşif, historia, tarihçiler, tarih, insanlık tarihinde, insan geçmiş, hastalık, enfeksiyonlar, laboratuvar, Büyüteç, tıp, geçmiş, penisilin, Penicillium, fotoğraf, araştırma, araştırmacı, Staphylococcus, zaman, Amerika İngiltere,

Vietnamese :

Alexander Fleming, kháng sinh, vi khuẩn, khám phá, historia, nhà sử học, lịch sử, lịch sử con người, nhân quá khứ, bệnh tật, nhiễm trùng, Phòng thí nghiệm, loupe, y học, quá khứ, penicillin, Penicillium, hình ảnh, nghiên cứu, nhà nghiên cứu, tụ cầu, thời gian, Vương Quốc Anh,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "“He realised that the fungus contained some substance which stopped the development of the streptococcus. This was penicillin.” "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "At that time no-one took him seriously and soon they forgot his discovery. Surely nobody would remember this. If Fleming would not have recorded it, today we would not have penicillin. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "We started our research as the war broke out on 1st October 1939. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "On one side they try to kill as many people as possible – on the other side they have a medicine that could save the lives of those soldiers who would die without the medicine. This was a great military advantage. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "We only suspected that a new medicine had been discovered. They said that the Americans had something similar. In North Africa they found a sizeable quantity of penicillin in English warehouses. But this was only stolen material and not from their own production. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "Hitler’s doctor, Morell, wrote a study where he identified penicillin as a new medicine. This case study was immediately encrypted and only a few people got to read this document. So even doctors were not allowed to know about it. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "The propaganda minister of the Empire prohibited the German press – and he could prohibit in a totalitarian state – to use the word penicillin. He wanted the people to know about a German invention, Domagk. He never wanted to admit that the English had found a very efficient agent, penicillin. "




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22-02-2011 10:56:04

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