Penicillin: Nathan Reed - himself in 1945 (00:00:11)
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Penicillin: Nathan Reed - himself in 1945

Rights-Managed, Footage

Location and time:

, 1999


Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi.[1] Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced

Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II.

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Arabic :

1928، البنسلين، ألكسندر فليمنغ، والطب، والحرب العالمية الثانية، قناة الساحل، د-اليوم، نورماندي، تدمير، البريطانية والألمانية والقوات، المملكة المتحدة، والمرض، Penicillium، والمضادات الحيوية، المكوّرات العنقودية، والعدوى، والبكتيريا، والاكتشاف، ناثان ريد، 1999، مقابلة، التاريخ، التاريخ، الماضي، الماضي البشري، الوقت، والمؤرخين، تاريخ البشرية، الحرب العالمية الثانية، الحرب، الحرب العالمية الثانية، ث ث 2، الحرب العالمية الثانية، والصراع العسكري، الجيش، الجندي، الحلفاء، والجيش، والمحور، مكافحة، معركة، وقتل، عام 1945, ,

Bulgarian :

1928, пеницилин, Александър Флеминг, медицина, Втората световна война, канал крайбрежие, D-ден, Нормандия, унищожаване, английски, немски, войски, Обединеното кралство, заболяване, Penicillium, антибиотици, Staphylococcus, инфекции, бактерии, откриването, Нейтън Рийд, 1999 г., интервю, история, история, минало, човешкото минало, време, историци, човешката история, Втората световна война, война, Втората световна война, WW 2, Втората световна война, военни конфликти, военни, войник, съюзници, армия, ос, борба, бият, убиват, 1945, ,

Catalan :

1928, penicil·lina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, Segona Guerra Mundial, canal de destrucció de la costa, D-Day, Normandia, britànic, alemany, tropes, Regne Unit, malaltia, Penicillium, antibiòtics, Staphylococcus, infeccions, bacteris, el descobriment, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, història, historia, passat, passat humà, temps, historiadors, història de la humanitat, la Segona Guerra Mundial, guerra, WW II, WW 2, Segona Guerra Mundial, conflicte militar, militars, soldat, aliats, l'exèrcit, l'eix, lluitar, lluitar, matar, 1945, ,

Chinese Simplified :

1928 年青霉素、 亚历山大 · 弗莱明、 医药、 第二次世界大战中,通道海岸,D 日,诺曼底,销毁、 英国、 德国、 部队、 联合王国、 疾病、 青霉、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 细菌、 发现、 弥敦道芦苇,1999 年采访,历史,历史博物馆,过去,人类过去、 时间、 历史学家、 人类历史上,第二次世界大战世界战争、 二战、 WW 2、 第二次世界战争、 军事冲突、 军事、 士兵、 盟友、 军队、 轴、 打击、 战斗、 杀了,1945年, ,

Chinese Traditional :

1928 年青黴素、 亞歷山大 · 弗萊明、 醫藥、 第二次世界大戰中,通道海岸,D 日,諾曼第,銷毀、 英國、 德國、 部隊、 聯合王國、 疾病、 青黴、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 細菌、 發現、 彌敦道蘆葦,1999 年採訪,歷史,歷史博物館,過去,人類過去、 時間、 歷史學家、 人類歷史上,第二次世界大戰世界戰爭、 二戰、 WW 2、 第二次世界戰爭、 軍事衝突、 軍事、 士兵、 盟友、 軍隊、 軸、 打擊、 戰鬥、 殺了,1945年, ,

Czech :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, lékařství, 2. světová válka, kanál pobřeží, D-den, Normandie, ničení, britské, německé, vojáci, Velká Británie, nemoci, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infekce, bakterie, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, historie, historia, minulosti, lidské minulosti, čas, historici, lidské historie, druhé světové války válka, WW II, WW 2, druhé světové války, vojenské konflikty, vojenské, voják, spojenci, armáda, osy, boj, bitva, zabíjet, 1945, ,

Danish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, 2. verdenskrig, kanal coast, D-dag i Normandiet, ødelæggelse, britiske, tyske, tropper, Storbritannien, sygdom, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, historie, historia, tidligere, menneskelige fortiden, tid, historikere, menneskets historie, anden verdenskrig, krigen, WW II WW 2, anden verdenskrig, militær konflikt, militær, soldat, allierede, hær, akse, kæmpe, kæmpe, dræbe, 1945, ,

Dutch :

1928, penicilline, Alexander Fleming, geneeskunde, tweede Wereldoorlog, kanaal kust, D-dag, Normandië, vernietiging, British, Duits, troepen, Verenigd Koninkrijk, ziekte, Penicillium, antibiotica, Staphylococcus, infecties, bacteriën, de ontdekking, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, geschiedenis, historia, verleden, menselijke verleden, tijd, historici, menselijke geschiedenis, tweede Wereldoorlog oorlog, WW II, WW 2, tweede Wereldoorlog, militair conflict, militair, soldaat, bondgenoten, leger, as, fight, vechten, doden, 1945, ,

Estonian :

1928, penitsilliini, Alexander Fleming, meditsiin, teine maailmasõda, kanal rannikul, D-ks, Normandia, hävitamine, Briti, saksa, väed, Suurbritannia, haiguse, Penicillium, antibiootikumid, Staphylococcus, infektsioonid, bakterid, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervjuu, ajalugu, historia, mineviku, inimeste minevikku, aega, ajaloolased, inimkonna ajaloos, II maailmasõda sõda, Käepael, WW 2, II maailmasõda, sõjalise konflikti, sõjavägi, sõdur, liitlased, armee ja telg, võidelda, lahing, tappa, 1945, ,

Finnish :

1928 penisilliini, Alexander Fleming, lääketiede, toinen maailmansota, kanava rannikolla, D-päivä, Helsinki, tuhoaminen, Britannian, Saksan, joukot, Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta, sairaus, Penicillium, antibiootteja, Staphylococcus, infektiot, bakteerit, löytö, Nathan Reed, 1999, haastattelu, historia, historia, aiemmin, ihmisen ohi, aika, historioitsijat, ihmiskunnan historian, toisen maailmansodan sodan saksalaisväestö, WW II, armeija, sotilaallinen konflikti, toisen maailmansodan sotilas, liittolaiset, armeija, akseli, taistella, taistella, tappaa, 1945, ,

French :

1928, pénicilline, Alexander Fleming, médecine, 2ème guerre mondiale, canaliser la destruction de la côte, jour J, Normandie, Britannique, allemand, troupes, Royaume-Uni, maladie, Penicillium, antibiotiques, Staphylococcus, infections, bactéries, la découverte, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, histoire, historia, passé, passé humain, temps, historiens, histoire de l'humanité, la seconde guerre mondiale, guerre, seconde guerre mondiale, 2 WW, seconde guerre mondiale, conflit militaire, militaire, soldat, armée, alliés et axe, se battre, battre, tuer, 1945, ,

German :

1928, Penicillin, Alexander Fleming, Medizin, 2. Weltkrieg, Kanal-Küste, D-Day in der Normandie, Zerstörung, britisch, Deutsch Truppen, Vereinigtes Königreich, Krankheit, Penicillium, Antibiotika, Staphylococcus, Infektionen, Bakterien, die Entdeckung, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, Geschichte, Historia, Vergangenheit, menschlichen Vergangenheit, Zeit, Historiker, der Geschichte der Menschheit, des zweiten WELTKRIEGS, Krieg, WW II, WW 2, zweiten Weltkrieg, militärischen Konflikt, Militär, Verbündeten, Armee, Soldat, Achse, kämpfen, kämpfen, töten, 1945, ,

Greek :

1928, πενικιλίνη, Αλέξανδρος Φλέμινγκ, ιατρική, 2ο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο, κανάλι ακτή, D-ημέρα, Νορμανδία, καταστροφή, Βρετανούς, Γερμανικά στρατεύματα, Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο, ασθένεια, Penicillium, αντιβιοτικά, σταφυλόκοκκος, λοιμώξεις, βακτήρια, την ανακάλυψη, Nathan Reed, 1999, συνέντευξη, ιστορία, ιστορία, παρελθόν, ανθρώπινο παρελθόν, χρόνο, ιστορικοί, ανθρώπινη ιστορία, τον δεύτερο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο, πόλεμος, β ' Παγκόσμιο πόλεμο, WW 2, δεύτερος παγκόσμιος πόλεμος, στρατιωτική σύγκρουση, στρατιωτικός, στρατιώτης, Σύμμαχοι, στρατός, άξονα, καταπολέμηση της, μάχη, να σκοτώσει, 1945, ,

Haitian Creole :

1928, pelisilin, Alexander Fleming, medikaman, 2e gè mondyal la, kanal kòt, D-jou, Normandy, kraze, Britanik, Almay, twoup yo, peyi wa ki nan, maladi, Penicillium, manje antibiotik Staphylococcus, enfeksyon, bakteri, jwenn, Nathan Reed, 1999, entretien, istwa, historia, depi lontan, depi lontan moun, , istoryen yo, istwa imen, gè MONDYAL, lagè, WW II, WW 2, dezyèm gè mondyal la, militè konfli, militè yo, sòlda, alye yo, lame, aks, batay, deside pou li batay, tiye an 1945, ,

Hebrew :

1928, פניצילין, אלכסנדר פלמינג, רפואה, מלחמת העולם השנייה, ערוץ חוף, D-יום, נורמנדי, הרס, בריטית, גרמנית, חיילים, הממלכה המאוחדת, מחלה, Penicillium, אנטיביוטיקה, סטפילוקוקוס, זיהומים, חיידקים, הגילוי, נתן ריד, 1999, ראיון, היסטוריה, historia, העבר, אנוש, זמן, היסטוריונים, ההיסטוריה האנושית, מלחמת העולם השנייה, מלחמה, מלחמת העולם השנייה, מלחמת העולם 2, מלחמת העולם השנייה, סכסוך צבאי, צבאי, חייל, בנות הברית, צבא, ציר, קרב, קרב, להרוג, 1945, ,

Hindi :

1928, पेनिसिलिन, अलेक्जेंडर फ्लेमिंग, दवा, 2 विश्व युद्ध, चैनल तट, D-दिवस, Normandy, विनाश, ब्रिटिश, जर्मन, सैनिकों, यूनाइटेड किंगडम, बीमारी, Penicillium, एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं, Staphylococcus, संक्रमण, जीवाणु, डिस्कवरी, नातान रीड, 1999, साक्षात्कार, इतिहास, historia, अतीत, मानव अतीत, समय, इतिहासकारों, मानव इतिहास, द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध, युद्ध, WW द्वितीय, WW 2, द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध, सैन्य संघर्ष, सैन्य, सैनिक, सहयोगियों, सेना, अक्ष, लड़ाई, लड़ाई, 1945 को मार डालो, ,

Hungarian :

1928-ban, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, orvostudomány, második világháború, csatorna partján, D-nap, Normandia, megsemmisítése, brit, német, csapatok, Egyesült Királyság, betegség, Penicillium, antibiotikumok, Staphylococcus, fertőzések, baktériumok, a felfedezés, Nathan Reed, 1999, interjú, történelem, historia, múlt, emberi múlt, idő, történészek, emberi történelem, a második világháború, a háború, a WW II, a WW 2, a második világháború, a katonai konfliktus, a katonai, katona, a szövetségesek, a hadsereg, a tengely, küzdelem, csata, megöli, 1945, ,

Indonesian :

tahun 1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, obat, perang dunia 2, saluran pantai, D-hari, Normandia, kehancuran, Inggris, Jerman, pasukan, Inggris, penyakit, Penicillium, antibiotik, Staphylococcus, infeksi, bakteri, penemuan, Nathan Reed, 1999, wawancara, sejarah, historia, masa lalu, masa lalu manusia, waktu, sejarawan, sejarah manusia, Perang Dunia II, perang, Perang Dunia II, WW 2, Perang Dunia II, konflik militer, militer, tentara Sekutu, tentara, sumbu, melawan, pertempuran, membunuh, 1945, ,

Italian :

1928, penicillina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, seconda guerra mondiale, canale distruzione costa, D-Day, Normandia, britannici, tedeschi, le truppe, Regno Unito, malattia, Penicillium, antibiotici, stafilococco, infezioni, batteri, scoperta, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervista, storia, historia, passato, passato umano, tempo, storici, storia umana, seconda guerra mondiale, guerra, seconda guerra mondiale, seconda guerra mondiale, conflitto militare, 2 WW, militare, gli alleati, esercito, soldato, asse, combattere, combattere, uccidere, 1945, ,

Japanese :

1928 年、ペニシリン、アレクサンダー ・ フレミング、医学、第二次世界大戦、チャネルの D-デイ、ノルマンディーの海岸破壊英国、ドイツ、軍隊、イギリス、病気、ペニシリウム、抗生物質、黄色ブドウ球菌、感染症、細菌、発見ネイサン リード、1999 年に、インタビュー、歴史、ヒストリア、過去、人間の過去、時間、歴史家、人類の歴史、第二次世界大戦戦争、第二次世界大戦、WW 2、第二次世界大戦、軍の衝突、軍事、兵士、同盟国、軍、軸、戦い、戦い, 殺す, 1945年, ,

Korean :

1928 년 페니실린, 알렉산더 플레밍, 의학, 2 차 세계 대전, 채널 해안, D 일, 노르망디, 파괴, 영국, 독일, 군대, 영국, , 푸른 곰 팡이, 항생제, 포도 상 구 균, 감염, 박테리아, 발견, Nathan 리드, 1999, 인터뷰, 역사, 역사, 과거, 인간의 과거, 시간, 역사, 인간의 역사, 제 2 차 세계 대전, 전쟁, WW II, WW 2, 제 2 차 세계 대전, 군사 충돌, , 군인, 동맹, 군대, , 전투, 전투, 죽 일, 1945, ,

Latvian :

1928, penicilīnu, Alexander Fleming, medicīna, 2 pasaules kara kanāla krastā, D-diena, Normandija, iznīcināšanu, britu, vācu karaspēks, Apvienotajā Karalistē, slimība Penicillium, antibiotikas, Staphylococcus, infekcijas, baktērijas, atklāšanas, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervija, vēsture, historia, pagātni, cilvēka pagātne, laiks, vēsturnieki, cilvēces vēsturē, II pasaules kara, kara, WW II, WW 2, otrā pasaules kara, militārā konflikta, militāro, karavīrs, sabiedrotajiem, armija, ass, cīņa, cīņa, nogalināt, 1945, ,

Lithuanian :

1928, penicilino, Alexander Fleming, medicina, II pasauliniam karui, kanalo pakrantės, D-dieną, Normandija, sunaikinimo, Britų, vokiečių, karių, Jungtinė Karalystė, ligos, Penicillium, antibiotikų, Staphylococcus, infekcijos, bakterijos, atradimas, Nathan Reed, 1999, interviu, istorija, historia, praeities, žmogaus praeitį, laikas, istorikai, žmonijos istorijoje, II pasaulinio karo, karo, antrojo pasaulinio karo, WW 2, antrojo pasaulinio karo, karinio konflikto, karo, kareivis, valstybės sąjungininkės, armijos, ašis, kovoti su, kova, nužudyti, 1945, ,

Norwegian :

1928 penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medisin, krigen kanal kysten, D-dagen, Normandie, ødeleggelse, britiske, tyske tropper, Storbritannia, sykdom, penicillin, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infeksjoner, bakterier, oppdagelsen, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervju, historie, historia, siste, menneskelige fortiden, tid, historikere, menneskets historie, andre VERDENSKRIG, krig, WW II, WW 2, andre verdenskrig, militær konflikt, militære, soldat, allierte, hær, aksen, kjempe, kjempe, drepe, 1945, ,

Polish :

1928, penicyliny, Alexander Fleming, Medycyna, II wojny światowej, kanał wybrzeża, D-dzień w Normandii, zniszczenia, brytyjskich, niemieckich, wojska, Wielka Brytania, choroby, Penicillium, antybiotyki, Staphylococcus, zakażenia, bakterie, odkrycie, Nathan Reed, 1999, wywiad, historia, historia, przeszłości, ludzkiej przeszłości, czas, historycy, ludzkiej historii, II wojny światowej, wojny, WW II, WW 2, II wojny światowej, konflikt zbrojny, wojskowych, sojuszników, armia, żołnierz, osi, walka, bitwa, zabić, 1945, ,

Portuguese :

1928, penicilina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, 2ª Guerra Mundial, destruição da costa, dia D, na Normandia, do canal britânico, alemão, tropas, Reino Unido, a doença, Penicillium, antibióticos, Staphylococcus, infecções, bactérias, a descoberta, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, história, historia, passado, passado humano, tempo, historiadores, a história humana, segunda guerra mundial, guerra, segunda guerra mundial, WW 2, segunda guerra mundial, conflito militar, militar, soldado, exército, aliados, eixo, lutar, lutar, matar, 1945, ,

Romanian :

1928, penicilină, Alexander Fleming, medicina, al doilea război mondial, canal coasta, D-zi, Normandia, distrugere, britanic, germane, trupele, Marea Britanie, boală, Penicillium, antibiotice, Staphylococcus, infecţii, bacterii, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, interviu, istorie, historia, trecut, trecut umane, timp, istoricii, istoria omenirii, al doilea război mondial, de război, al doilea război mondial, WW 2, al doilea război mondial, conflict militar, militare, soldat, aliaţi, armata, axa, lupta, lupta, ucide, 1945, ,

Russian :

1928, пенициллин, Александр Флеминг, медицине, 2-й мировой войны, канал побережье, D-день, Нормандии, уничтожения, британский, немецкий, войска, Соединенное Королевство, болезни, пеницилл, антибиотики, стафилококков, инфекции, бактерии, открытия, Натан Рид, 1999, интервью, история, historia, прошлое, прошлое человека, время, историки, человеческой истории, II мировой войны, война, ВОВ, WW 2, второй мировой войны, военных конфликтов, военных, солдат, союзники, армия, оси, сражаться, сражаться, убивать, 1945, ,

Slovak :

1928, penicilín, Alexander Fleming, medicína, druhá svetová vojna, kanál pobrežia, D-deň, Normandia, zničenie, britskej, nemeckej, vojakov, Veľká Británia, choroba, Penicillium, antibiotiká, Staphylococcus, infekcie, baktérie, objav, Nathan Reed, 1999, rozhovor, História, historia, minulosti, ľudskej minulosti, čas, historikov, dejinách, svetovej vojny, vojna, WW II WW 2 druhej svetovej vojny, vojenský konflikt, vojenské, vojak, spojenci, armáda, osi, boj, bitka, zabiť, 1945, ,

Spanish :

1928, penicilina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, 2ª guerra mundial, destrucción Costa, D-Day, Normandía, del canal británico, alemán, tropas, Reino Unido, enfermedad, Penicillium, antibióticos, Staphylococcus, infecciones, bacterias, el descubrimiento, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, historia, historia, pasado, pasado humano, tiempo, historiadores, historia de la humanidad, II guerra mundial, guerra, WW II, WW 2, segunda guerra mundial, conflicto militar, militar, soldado, aliados, ejército, eje, luchar, luchar, matar, 1945, ,

Swedish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, 2: a världskriget, kanal kusten, D-dagen i Normandie, förstörelse, brittiska, tyska, trupper, Förenade kungariket, sjukdom, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, upptäckten, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervju, historia, historia, tidigare, människans förflutna, tid, historiker, människans historia, andra världskriget, krig, WW II WW 2, andra världskriget, militär konflikt, militär, soldat, allierade, armén, axel, kampen, slåss, döda, 1945, ,

Thai :

1928 ยาเพนนิซิลลิน อเล็กซานเดอร์เฟลมมิง การแพทย์ 2 สงครามโลก ช่องฝั่ง D-วัน นอร์มังดี ทำลาย อังกฤษ เยอรมัน ทหาร สหราชอาณาจักร เจ็บป่วย Penicillium ยาปฏิชีวนะ Staphylococcus ติดเชื้อ เชื้อ แบคทีเรีย ค้นพบ นาธาน Reed, 1999 สัมภาษณ์ ประวัติ historia อดีต อดีตมนุษย์ เวลา นักประวัติศาสตร์ ประวัติบุคคล สงครามโลก สงคราม WW II, WW 2 สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง ความขัดแย้งทางทหาร ทหาร ทหาร พันธมิตร กองทัพ แกน ต่อสู้ ต่อสู้ ฆ่า 1945, ,

Turkish :

1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, tıp, 2 Dünya Savaşı, kanal kıyısında, D-Day, Normandiya, imha, İngiliz, Alman, asker, İngiltere, hastalık, Penicillium, antibiyotikler, Staphylococcus, enfeksiyonlar, bakteri, keşif, Nathan Reed, 1999, görüşme, Tarih, historia, geçmiş, insan geçmiş, zaman, tarihçiler, insanlık tarihinde, Dünya Savaşı, savaş, WW II, WW 2, İkinci Dünya Savaşı, askeri çatışma, ordu, asker, Müttefikler, ordu, eksen, kavga, savaş, öldürme, 1945, ,

Vietnamese :

năm 1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, y học, chiến tranh thế giới thứ 2, kênh bờ biển, D-ngày, Normandy, phá hủy, Anh, Đức, quân đội, Vương Quốc Anh, bệnh tật, Penicillium, thuốc kháng sinh, Staphylococcus, nhiễm trùng, vi khuẩn, khám phá, Nathan Reed, 1999, phỏng vấn, lịch sử, historia, quá khứ, quá khứ của con người, thời gian, nhà sử học, lịch sử con người, chiến tranh thế giới thứ hai, chiến tranh, Đệ nhị thế chiến, WW 2, chiến tranh thế giới thứ hai, xung đột quân sự, quân sự, người lính, quân đồng minh, quân đội, trục, chiến đấu, chiến đấu, giết, năm 1945, ,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "“He realised that the fungus contained some substance which stopped the development of the streptococcus. This was penicillin.” "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "At that time no-one took him seriously and soon they forgot his discovery. Surely nobody would remember this. If Fleming would not have recorded it, today we would not have penicillin. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "We started our research as the war broke out on 1st October 1939. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "On one side they try to kill as many people as possible – on the other side they have a medicine that could save the lives of those soldiers who would die without the medicine. This was a great military advantage. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "We only suspected that a new medicine had been discovered. They said that the Americans had something similar. In North Africa they found a sizeable quantity of penicillin in English warehouses. But this was only stolen material and not from their own production. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "Hitler’s doctor, Morell, wrote a study where he identified penicillin as a new medicine. This case study was immediately encrypted and only a few people got to read this document. So even doctors were not allowed to know about it. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "The propaganda minister of the Empire prohibited the German press – and he could prohibit in a totalitarian state – to use the word penicillin. He wanted the people to know about a German invention, Domagk. He never wanted to admit that the English had found a very efficient agent, penicillin. "




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22-02-2011 10:37:36

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