Penicillin: Nathan Reed - about his war wound (00:06:17)
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Penicillin: Nathan Reed - about his war wound

Rights-Managed, Footage

Location and time:

, 1999


Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi.[1] Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced

Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II.

Other languages: show / hide

Arabic :

1928، البنسلين، ألكسندر فليمنغ، والطب، والحرب العالمية الثانية، قناة الساحل، د-اليوم، نورماندي، تدمير، البريطانية والألمانية والقوات، المملكة المتحدة، والمرض، Penicillium، والمضادات الحيوية، والمكورات العنقودية، والعدوى، والبكتيريا، والاكتشاف، ناثان ريد، 1999، مقابلة، التاريخ، والتاريخ، والماضي، البشرية في الماضي، والوقت، المؤرخين، وعصور ما قبل التاريخ، تاريخ البشرية، الحرب العالمية الثانية، الحرب، الحرب العالمية الثانية، الحرب العالمية 2، ثاني الحرب العالمية، الصراع العسكري، عسكري، جندي، الحلفاء، الجيش، المحور، المعركة، معركة، وقتل1945، ناثان ريد-حول الحرب له الجرح،,

Bulgarian :

1928, пеницилин, Александър Флеминг, медицина, Втората световна война, канал крайбрежие, D-ден, Нормандия, унищожаване, английски, немски, войски, Обединеното кралство, заболяване, Penicillium, антибиотици, Staphylococcus, инфекции, бактерии, откриването, Нейтън Рийд, 1999 г., интервю, история, история, минало, човешкото минало, време, историци, праистория, човешки история, Втората световна война, война, първата световна война II, WW 2, Втората световна война, военни конфликти, военни, войник, съюзници, армия, ос, борба, битка, убийство1945 година, Нейтън Рийд - за войната му рана, ,

Catalan :

1928, penicil·lina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, Segona Guerra Mundial, canal de destrucció de la costa, D-Day, Normandia, britànic, alemany, tropes, Regne Unit, malaltia, Penicillium, antibiòtics, Staphylococcus, infeccions, bacteris, el descobriment, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, història, història, passat, passat humà, temps, historiadors, prehistòria, història de la humanitat, Segona Guerra Mundial, guerra, WW II, WW 2, Segona Guerra Mundial, soldat militar, conflicte militar, aliats, l'exèrcit, l'eix, lluita, batalla, matar1945, Nathan Reed - sobre la seva ferida, ,

Chinese Simplified :

1928 年青霉素,亚历山大 · 弗莱明、 医药、 第二次世界大战,通道海岸,D 日,诺曼底,破坏,英国、 德国、 部队、 联合王国、 疾病、 青霉、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 细菌,发现,弥敦道的芦苇,1999 年,采访,历史,historia,过去,过去的人,时间,历史学家,史前时期,人类历史上,第二,战争,WW WW 2,第二次世界大战第二世界战争、 军事冲突,军事,士兵,盟友,军队,轴,战斗,战斗,杀1945 年,弥敦道芦苇-关于他的战争的伤口,,

Chinese Traditional :

1928 年青黴素,亞歷山大 · 弗萊明、 醫藥、 第二次世界大戰,通道海岸,D 日,諾曼第,破壞,英國、 德國、 部隊、 聯合王國、 疾病、 青黴、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 細菌,發現,彌敦道的蘆葦,1999 年,採訪,歷史,historia,過去,過去的人,時間,歷史學家,史前時期,人類歷史上,第二,戰爭,WW WW 2,第二次世界大戰第二世界戰爭、 軍事衝突,軍事,士兵,盟友,軍隊,軸,戰鬥,戰鬥,殺1945 年,彌敦道蘆葦-關於他的戰爭的傷口,,

Czech :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, lékařství, 2. světová válka, kanál pobřeží, D-den, Normandie, ničení, britské, německé, vojáků, Velká Británie, nemoci, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infekce, bakterie, objev, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, historie, historia, minulosti, lidské minulosti, čas, historici, Pravěk, lidských dějin, druhá světová válka, WW II, WW 2, druhé světové války, vojenské konflikty, vojenské, voják, spojenci, armáda, osy, boj, bitva, kill1945, Nathan Reed - o jeho válečné zranění, ,

Danish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, 2. verdenskrig, kanal coast, D-dag i Normandiet, ødelæggelse, britiske, tyske, tropper, Storbritannien, sygdom, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, historie, historia, tidligere, menneskelige forbi, tid, historikere, forhistorie, menneskets historie, world war II, krig, WW II, WW 2, anden verdenskrig, militær konflikt, militær, soldat, allierede, hær, akse, kamp, kampen, dræbe1945, Nathan Reed - om hans krigen sår, ,

Dutch :

1928, penicilline, Alexander Fleming, geneeskunde, tweede Wereldoorlog, kanaal kust, D-dag, Normandië, vernietiging, British, Duits, troepen, Verenigd Koninkrijk, ziekte, Penicillium, antibiotica, Staphylococcus, infecties, bacteriën, de ontdekking, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, historia, geschiedenis, verleden, menselijke voorbij, tijd, historici, prehistorie, menselijke geschiedenis, tweede Wereldoorlog, oorlog, WW II, WW 2, tweede Wereldoorlog, militaire conflict, militaire, soldaat, bondgenoten, leger, as, strijd, gevecht, doden1945, Nathan Reed - over zijn wond, oorlog,

Estonian :

1928, penitsilliini, Alexander Fleming, meditsiin, teine maailmasõda, kanali rannikul, D-ks, Normandia, hävitamine, Briti, saksa, väed, Suurbritannia, haiguse, Penicillium, antibiootikumid, Staphylococcus, infektsioonid, bakterid, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervjuu, ajalugu, historia, mineviku, inimeste mineviku, aeg, ajaloolased, Esiajalugu, inimkonna ajaloos, II maailmasõda, maailmasõda, WW II WW 2, teine maailmasõda, sõjalise konflikti sõjalise, sõdur, liitlasi, armee telg, võitlus, lahing, kill1945 Nathan Reed - umbes tema sõda haava, ,

Finnish :

1928 penisilliini, Alexander Fleming, lääketiede, toinen maailmansota, kanava rannikolla, D-päivä, Helsinki, tuhoaminen, Britannian, Saksan, joukot, Suomi, sairaus, Penicillium, antibiootteja, Staphylococcus, infektiot, bakteerit, löytö, Nathan Reed, 1999, haastattelu, historia, historia, aiemmin ihmisen ohi, aika, historioitsijat, esihistoria, ihmiskunnan historian, toisen maailmansodan sodan, WW II WW 2 Toiseksi sotilaallisen konfliktin armeijan sotilas, maailmansodan liittoutuneiden armeija, akseli, taistelua, taistelua, tappaa1945 Nathan Reed – mitään hänen sota haava, ,

French :

1928, pénicilline, Alexander Fleming, médecine, 2ème guerre mondiale, canaliser la destruction de la côte, jour J, Normandie, Britannique, allemand, troupes, Grande Bretagne, maladie, Penicillium, antibiotiques, Staphylococcus, infections, bactéries, la découverte, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, histoire, historia, passé, humaine passées, le temps, historiens, préhistoire, histoire de l'humanité, la seconde guerre mondiale, guerre, WW II, 2 WW, deuxième guerre mondiale, soldat militaire, de conflit militaire, alliés, armée, axe, lutte, bataille, tuer1945, Nathan Reed - sur sa guerre plaie, ,

German :

1928, Penicillin, Alexander Fleming, Medizin, 2. Weltkrieg, Kanal-Küste, D-Day in der Normandie, Zerstörung, britisch, Deutsch Truppen, Vereinigtes Königreich, Krankheit, Penicillium, Antibiotika, Staphylococcus, Infektionen, Bakterien, die Entdeckung, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, Geschichte, Historia, Vergangenheit, menschliche Vergangenheit, Zeit, Historiker, Vorgeschichte, menschliche Geschichte, Zweiter Weltkrieg, Krieg, WW II, WW 2, zweitens Weltkrieg militärischen Konflikt, Militär, Soldat, Verbündete, Armee, Achse, Kampf, Schlacht, töten1945, Nathan Reed - über seine Kriegsverletzung, ,

Greek :

1928, πενικιλίνη, Αλέξανδρος Φλέμινγκ, ιατρική, 2ο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο, κανάλι ακτή, D-ημέρα, Νορμανδία, καταστροφή, Βρετανούς, Γερμανικά στρατεύματα, Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο, ασθένεια, Penicillium, αντιβιοτικά, σταφυλόκοκκος, λοιμώξεις, βακτήρια, την ανακάλυψη, Nathan Reed, 1999, συνέντευξη, ιστορία, ιστορία, το παρελθόν, το ανθρώπινο παρελθόν, χρόνος, ιστορικοί, την προϊστορία, την ιστορία της ανθρωπότητας, β ' Παγκοσμίου Πολέμου, πολέμου, WW II, WW 2, δεύτερο παγκόσμιο πόλεμο, στρατιωτική σύγκρουση, στρατιωτικός, στρατιώτης, Σύμμαχοι, στρατού, άξονα, αγώνα, μάχη, σκοτώνω1945, Nathan Reed - σχετικά με τον πόλεμο πληγή, ,

Haitian Creole :

1928, pelisilin, Alexander Fleming, medikaman, 2e gè mondyal kanal kòt, D-jou, Normandy, pèdi a, Britanik, Almay, twoup yo, peyi wa ki nan, maladi, Penicillium, manje antibiotik Staphylococcus, enfeksyon, bakteri, jwenn, Nathan Reed, 1999, entretien, istwa a, se te historia, depi lontan, moun pase, fwa, istoryen yo, Preyistwa, moun istwa, gè mondyal II, lagè, WW, II, WW, 2, dezyèm gè mondyal la, sòlda militè, militè konfli, alye, lame, aks, goumen, batay, elegalAn 1945, Nathan Reed - osijè de l' lagè ki plaies, ,

Hebrew :

1928, פניצילין, אלכסנדר פלמינג, רפואה, מלחמת העולם השנייה, ערוץ חוף, D-יום, נורמנדי, הרס, בריטית, גרמנית, חיילים, הממלכה המאוחדת, מחלה, Penicillium, אנטיביוטיקה, סטפילוקוקוס, זיהומים, חיידקים, הגילוי, נתן ריד, 1999, ראיון, היסטוריה, historia, העבר, האדם בעבר, זמן, היסטוריונים, פרהיסטוריה, ההיסטוריה האנושית, מלחמת העולם השנייה, מלחמה, מלחמת העולם השנייה, מלחמת העולם 2, השני מלחמת העולם, סכסוך צבאי, צבא, חייל, בני ברית, צבא, ציר, קרב, קרב, להרוג1945, נתן ריד - על המלחמה שלו פצע, ,

Hindi :

1928, पेनिसिलिन, अलेक्जेंडर फ्लेमिंग, दवा, 2 विश्व युद्ध, चैनल तट, D-दिवस, Normandy, विनाश, ब्रिटिश, जर्मन, सैनिकों, यूनाइटेड किंगडम, बीमारी, Penicillium, एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं, Staphylococcus, संक्रमण, जीवाणु, डिस्कवरी, नातान रीड, 1999, साक्षात्कार, इतिहास, historia, अतीत, मानव अतीत, समय, इतिहासकारों, प्रागितिहास, मानव इतिहास, विश्व युद्ध II, युद्ध, WW द्वितीय, WW 2, दूसरा विश्व युद्ध, सैन्य संघर्ष, सैनिक, सैनिक, सहयोगी, सेना, अक्ष, लड़ाई, लड़ाई, को मार डालो1945, नातान रीड - घाव उनके युद्ध के बारे में, ,

Hungarian :

1928-ban, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, orvostudomány, második világháború, csatorna partján, D-nap, Normandia, megsemmisítése, brit, német, csapatok, Egyesült Királyság, betegség, Penicillium, antibiotikumok, Staphylococcus, fertőzések, baktériumok, a felfedezés, Nathan Reed, 1999, interjú, történelem, historia, múlt, múltbeli emberi, idő, történészek, őstörténet, emberi történelem, world war II, háború, WW II, WW 2, második világháború, katonai konfliktus, katonai, katona, szövetségesek, hadsereg, tengely, küzdelem, csata, kill1945, Nathan Reed - a háborúról, seb, ,

Indonesian :

tahun 1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, obat, perang dunia 2, saluran pantai, D-hari, Normandia, kehancuran, Inggris, Jerman, pasukan, Inggris, penyakit, Penicillium, antibiotik, Staphylococcus, infeksi, bakteri, penemuan, Nathan Reed, 1999, wawancara, sejarah, historia, masa lalu, manusia masa lalu, waktu, sejarawan, prasejarah, sejarah manusia, Perang Dunia II, perang, WW II, WW 2, kedua perang dunia, konflik militer, militer, tentara, sekutu, tentara, axis, pertarungan, pertempuran, membunuh1945, Nathan Reed - tentang perang nya luka, ,

Italian :

1928, penicillina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, seconda guerra mondiale, canale distruzione costa, D-Day, Normandia, britannici, tedeschi, le truppe, Regno Unito, malattia, Penicillium, antibiotici, stafilococco, infezioni, batteri, scoperta, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervista, storia, historia, passato, umano passato, tempo, storici, la preistoria, la storia umana, la seconda guerra mondiale, guerra, WW II, WW 2, seconda guerra mondiale, militare, soldato di conflitto militare, gli alleati, esercito, asse, lotta, battaglia, uccidere1945, Nathan Reed - sulla sua guerra, ferita, ,

Japanese :

1928 年、ペニシリン、アレクサンダー ・ フレミング、医学、第二次世界大戦、チャネルの D-デイ、ノルマンディーの海岸破壊英国、ドイツ、軍隊、イギリス、病気、ペニシリウム、抗生物質、黄色ブドウ球菌、感染症、細菌、発見、ネイサンのリード、1999 年に、インタビュー、歴史、ヒストリア、過去には、過去の人間、時間、歴史家、先史時代、人間の歴史、WW 2 第二次世界大戦戦争、第二次世界大戦第二世界大戦軍事衝突は、軍事、兵士、同盟国の軍隊、軸、戦い、戦い、殺す、1945 年ネイサン リード - 傷は、彼の戦争について,

Korean :

1928 년 페니실린, 알렉산더 플레밍, 의학, 2 차 세계 대전, 채널 해안, D 일, 노르망디, 파괴, 영국, 독일, 군대, 영국, , 푸른 곰 팡이, 항생제, 포도 상 구 균, 감염, 박테리아, 발견, 나 단 리드, 1999, 인터뷰, 역사, 역사, 과거, 과거의 인간, 시간, 역사, 선사시대, 인간의 역사, 세계 대전, 전쟁, WW II, WW 2, 두 번째 세계 전쟁, 군사 충돌, 군대, 군인, 동맹, 군대, , 전투, 전투, 죽1945 년, Nathan 리드-상처, 그의 전쟁에 대 한,

Latvian :

1928. gadā, penicilīnu, Alexander Fleming, medicīna, 2 pasaules kara kanāla krastā, D-diena, Normandija, iznīcināšanu, britu, vācu karaspēks, Apvienotajā Karalistē, slimība Penicillium, antibiotikas, Staphylococcus, infekcijas, baktērijas, atklāšana, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervija, vēsturi, historia, pagātnes cilvēku pagātnes, laiks, vēsturnieki, aizvēsture, cilvēces vēsturē, pasaules kara II, karš, WW II WW 2 otra pasaules kara militārā konflikta militārās, karavīrs, sabiedrotie, armija, ass, cīņa, cīņa, nogalināt1945, Nathan Reed - par viņa kara brūces, ,

Lithuanian :

1928, penicilino, Alexander Fleming, medicina, II pasauliniam karui, kanalo pakrantės, D-dieną, Normandija, sunaikinimo, Didžiosios Britanijos, Vokietijos, kariuomenės, Jungtinė Karalystė, ligos, Penicillium, antibiotikai, Staphylococcus, infekcijos, bakterijos, atradimas, Nathan Reed, 1999, interviu, istorija, istorija, praeitis, žmonių praeityje, laikas, istorikai, priešistorė, žmonijos istorijoje, II pasaulinio karo, karo, WW II WW 2, antra pasaulinio karo, karinio konflikto, kariuomenė, kareivis, sąjungininkų, armijos, ašis, kova, mūšis, žudytiM. 1945, Nathan Reed - apie savo karo žaizdų, ,

Norwegian :

1928 penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medisin, krigen kanal kysten, D-dagen, Normandie, ødeleggelse, britiske, tyske tropper, Storbritannia, sykdom, penicillin, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infeksjoner, bakterier, oppdagelsen, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervju, historie, historia, siste, menneskelige forbi, tid, historikere, forhistorie, menneskets historie, andre Verdenskrig, krig, WW II, WW 2, andre verdenskrig, militær konflikt, militære, soldat, allierte, hær, aksen, kampen, kampen, drepe1945 Nathan Reed - om krigen sår, ,

Polish :

1928, penicyliny, Alexander Fleming, Medycyna, II wojny światowej, kanał wybrzeża, D-dzień w Normandii, zniszczenia, brytyjskich, niemieckich, wojska, Wielka Brytania, choroby, Penicillium, antybiotyki, Staphylococcus, zakażenia, bakterie, odkrycie, Nathan Reed, 1999, wywiad, historia, historia, przeszłości, ludzkiej przeszłości, czas, historycy, Prehistoria, ludzkiej historii, wojny światowej II wojnie, WW II WW 2, drugi świecie wojna, konflikt zbrojny, wojsko, żołnierz, sojuszników, armia, osi, walka, bitwa, zabić1945, Nathan Reed - o jego wojny rany, ,

Portuguese :

1928, penicilina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, 2ª Guerra Mundial, canal destruição da costa, dia D, na Normandia, britânicos, alemães, tropas, Reino Unido, a doença, Penicillium, antibióticos, Staphylococcus, infecções, bactérias, a descoberta, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, história, historia, passado, humano, passado, tempo, historiadores, pré-história, história humana, segunda guerra mundial, guerra, WW II, WW 2, segunda guerra mundial, soldado militar, conflito militar, aliados, exército, eixo, luta, batalha, matar1945, Nathan Reed - sobre seu ferimento, de guerra,

Romanian :

1928, penicilină, Alexander Fleming, medicina, al doilea război mondial, canal coasta, D-zi, Normandia, distrugere, britanic, germane, trupele, Marea Britanie, boală, Penicillium, antibiotice, Staphylococcus, infecţii, bacterii, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, interviu, istorie, historia, trecut, om trecut, timp, istorici, preistorie, istoria omenirii, al doilea război mondial, războiul, WW II WW 2, al doilea razboi mondial, conflict militar, militare, soldat, aliate, armata, axa, lupta, lupta, ucide1945, Nathan Reed - despre războiul rana, ,

Russian :

1928, пенициллин, Александр Флеминг, медицине, 2-й мировой войны, канал побережье, D-день, Нормандии, уничтожения, британский, немецкий, войска, Соединенное Королевство, болезни, пеницилл, антибиотики, стафилококков, инфекции, бактерии, открытия, Натан Рид, 1999, интервью, история, история, прошлое, прошлое человека, время, историки, Протоистория, человеческой истории, мировая война, войны, WW II, WW 2, второй мировой войны, военных конфликтов, военных, солдат, союзники, армия, оси, бой, сражение, убить1945, Натан Рид - о его войне раны, ,

Slovak :

1928, penicilín, Alexander Fleming, medicína, druhá svetová vojna, kanál pobrežia, D-deň, Normandia, zničenie, britskej, nemeckej, vojakov, Veľká Británia, choroba, Penicillium, antibiotiká, Staphylococcus, infekcie, baktérie, objav, Nathan Reed, 1999, interview, História, historia, minulosť, ľudí okolo, čas, historikov, Pravek, ľudskej histórie, druhá svetová vojna, vojna, WW II WW 2, druhý svetovej vojny, vojenský konflikt, armáda, vojak, spojenci, armáda, osi, boj, bitka, zabiť1945, Nathan Reed - o jeho vojne rany, ,

Slovenian :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, medicina, 2. svetovna vojna, kanal obali, dan D, Normandija, uničenje, britanski, nemški, vojakov, Velika Britanija, bolezni, Penicillium, antibiotiki, Staphylococcus, okužbe, bakterije, Discovery, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervju, zgodovina, historia, preteklosti, človeške preteklosti, čas, zgodovinarji, prazgodovina, človeške zgodovine, druge svetovne vojne, vojne, WW II, WW 2, drugič svetovne vojne, vojaških spopadov, vojaška, vojak, zavezniki, vojska, osi, boj, boj, kill1945, Nathan Reed - o svoje vojne rane, ,

Spanish :

1928, penicilina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, 2ª guerra mundial, destrucción Costa, D-Day, Normandía, del canal británico, alemán, tropas, Reino Unido, enfermedad, Penicillium, antibióticos, Staphylococcus, infecciones, bacterias, el descubrimiento, Nathan Reed, 1999, entrevista, historia, historia, pasado, pasado humano, tiempo, historiadores, prehistoria, historia de la humanidad, segunda guerra mundial, guerra, WW WW 2, II segunda guerra mundial, conflicto militar, soldado, aliados, ejército, eje, pelea, combate, matar1945, Nathan Reed - sobre su herida, de guerra,

Swedish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, 2: a världskriget, kanal kusten, D-dagen i Normandie, förstörelse, brittiska, tyska, trupper, Förenade kungariket, sjukdom, Penicillium, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, upptäckten, Nathan Reed, 1999, intervju, historia, historia, tidigare, mänskliga förbi, tid, historiker, förhistoria, mänskliga historia, andra världskriget, krig, WW II WW 2, andra världskriget, militär konflikt, militär, soldat, allierade, armén, axel, kamp, strid, döda1945, Nathan Reed - om hans krig sår, ,

Thai :

1928 ยาเพนนิซิลลิน อเล็กซานเดอร์เฟลมมิง การแพทย์ 2 สงครามโลก ช่องฝั่ง D-วัน นอร์มังดี ทำลาย อังกฤษ เยอรมัน ทหาร สหราชอาณาจักร เจ็บป่วย Penicillium ยาปฏิชีวนะ Staphylococcus ติดเชื้อ เชื้อ แบคทีเรีย ค้นพบ นาธาน Reed, 1999 สัมภาษณ์ ประวัติ historia อดีต มนุษย์ที่ผ่านมา เวลา นักประวัติศาสตร์ ยุคก่อนประวัติศาสตร์ ประวัติบุคคล สงครามโลกครั้งที่สอง สงคราม WW II, WW 2 สองโลกสงคราม ความขัดแย้งทางทหาร ทหาร ทหาร พันธมิตร กองทัพ แกน ต่อสู้ ต่อสู้ ฆ่า, 1945 นาธาน Reed - เกี่ยวกับสงครามของแผล,

Turkish :

1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, tıp, 2 Dünya Savaşı, kanal kıyısında, D-Day, Normandiya, yıkım, İngiliz, Alman, asker, İngiltere, hastalık, Penicillium, antibiyotikler, stafilokok, enfeksiyonlar, bakteri, keşif, Nathan Reed, 1999, görüşme, Tarih, historia, geçmiş, geçmiş insan, zaman, tarihçilere, tarih öncesi, insanlık tarihi, Dünya Savaşı, savaş, WW II WW 2, İkinci Dünya Savaşı, askeri çatışma, askeri, asker, Müttefikler, ordu, eksen, kavga, savaş, öldürme1945'te, Nathan Reed - onun savaş yarası hakkında,

Ukrainian :

1928, пеніцилін, Александер Флемінг, медицина, Другої світової війни, канал узбережжя, D-день, Нормандія, знищення, британські, німецька, війська, Сполучене Королівство, хвороби, Penicillium, антибіотики, стафілокок, інфекції, бактерії, відкриття, Натан рід, 1999, інтерв'ю, історія, historia, минуле людини повз, то час, історики, Передісторія, людської історії світової війни, війни, WW II, WW 2, по-друге світової війни, військовий конфлікт, військовий, солдат, союзники, армії, осі, боротьба, битва, вбити1945, Натан рід - про своє війну, загоєння ран, ,

Vietnamese :

năm 1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, y học, chiến tranh thế giới thứ 2, kênh bờ biển, D-ngày, Normandy, phá hủy, Anh, Đức, quân đội, Vương Quốc Anh, bệnh tật, Penicillium, thuốc kháng sinh, Staphylococcus, nhiễm trùng, vi khuẩn, khám phá, Nathan Reed, 1999, phỏng vấn, lịch sử, lịch sử, quá khứ, con người trong quá khứ, thời gian, nhà sử học thời tiền sử, lịch sử con người, chiến tranh thế giới II, chiến tranh, WW II, WW 2, thứ hai thế giới chiến tranh, xung đột quân sự, quân sự, người lính, đồng minh, quân đội, trục, cuộc chiến, trận, giếtNăm 1945, Nathan Reed - về chiến tranh vết thương, ,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "“He realised that the fungus contained some substance which stopped the development of the streptococcus. This was penicillin.” "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "At that time no-one took him seriously and soon they forgot his discovery. Surely nobody would remember this. If Fleming would not have recorded it, today we would not have penicillin. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "We started our research as the war broke out on 1st October 1939. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "On one side they try to kill as many people as possible – on the other side they have a medicine that could save the lives of those soldiers who would die without the medicine. This was a great military advantage. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "We only suspected that a new medicine had been discovered. They said that the Americans had something similar. In North Africa they found a sizeable quantity of penicillin in English warehouses. But this was only stolen material and not from their own production. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "Hitler’s doctor, Morell, wrote a study where he identified penicillin as a new medicine. This case study was immediately encrypted and only a few people got to read this document. So even doctors were not allowed to know about it. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "The propaganda minister of the Empire prohibited the German press – and he could prohibit in a totalitarian state – to use the word penicillin. He wanted the people to know about a German invention, Domagk. He never wanted to admit that the English had found a very efficient agent, penicillin. "




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22-02-2011 10:57:37

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