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1928 - Alexander Fleming: discovers Penicillin
08:15
SD RM master

United Kingdom, Oxford

1928 - Alexander Fleming: discovers Penicillin

Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II. In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.


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1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin
08:23
SD RM English

United Kingdom, Oxford

1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin

Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II. In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
08:15
SD RM English

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
08:10
SD RM master

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
09:05
SD RM German

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
08:27
5 clips SD RM English

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
08:17
SD RM master

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
09:15
SD RM German

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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Acupuncture treatment in the ear
01:44
SD RM master

Hungary

Acupuncture treatment in the ear

Acupuncture treatment


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Acupuncture- needle insertion
00:29
SD RM master

Hungary

Acupuncture- needle insertion

Akupunktura - needle insertion


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Adolf Hitler: X-rays of Hitler's teeth, remains, dental documents
00:09
SD RM

Germany

Adolf Hitler: X-rays of Hitler's teeth, remains, dental documents

Adolf Hitler: X-rays of Hitler's teeth, remains, dental documents


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Afghan hospital: Neglected hospital in Afghanistan during the war, laboratory, men queuing for prescription, nurse, assistant, counting pills
01:17
SD RM master

Afghanistan

Afghan hospital: Neglected hospital in Afghanistan during the war, laboratory, men queuing for prescription, nurse, assistant, counting pills

Afghan hospital: Neglected hospital in Afghanistan during the war, laboratory, men queuing for prescription, nurse, assistant, counting pills


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AIDS: Rock Hudson becomes the first celebrity victim of AIDS, the search begins for "patient zero" - 4min.
04:07
SD RM master

USA, Los Angeles

AIDS: Rock Hudson becomes the first celebrity victim of AIDS, the search begins for "patient zero" - 4min.

AIDS becomes front page news in 1985 when Rock Hudson announces his homosexuality, and also that he is carrying the disease. The disease starts to spread within the homosexual community, and researchers struggle to contain the disease. They begin to look for "Patient Zero," or the first carrier of the disease within the US. Soon this search leads to a Canadian flight attendant. Rock Hudson died less than 3 months after he announced he was suffering from the disease, on October 2, 1985. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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AIDS: Rock Hudson becomes the first celebrity victim of AIDS, the search begins for "patient zero" - 4min.
04:07
SD RM English

USA, Los Angeles

AIDS: Rock Hudson becomes the first celebrity victim of AIDS, the search begins for "patient zero" - 4min.

AIDS becomes front page news in 1985 when Rock Hudson announces his homosexuality, and also that he is carrying the disease. The disease starts to spread within the homosexual community, and researchers struggle to contain the disease. They begin to look for "Patient Zero," or the first carrier of the disease within the US. Soon this search leads to a Canadian flight attendant. Rock Hudson died less than 3 months after he announced he was suffering from the disease, on October 2, 1985. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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AIDS: Rock Hudson's death puts AIDS into the spotlight, researchers struggle to find the cause of the disease - 2min.
01:56
SD RM English

USA

AIDS: Rock Hudson's death puts AIDS into the spotlight, researchers struggle to find the cause of the disease - 2min.

AIDS becomes front page news in 1985 when Rock Hudson announces his homosexuality, and also that he is carrying the disease. The disease starts to spread within the homosexual community, and researchers struggle to contain the disease. They begin to look for "Patient Zero," or the first carrier of the disease within the US. Soon this search leads to a Canadian flight attendant. Rock Hudson died less than 3 months after he announced he was suffering from the disease, on October 2, 1985. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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AIDS: Rock Hudson's death puts AIDS into the spotlight, researchers struggle to find the cause of the disease - 2min.
01:56
SD RM master

USA

AIDS: Rock Hudson's death puts AIDS into the spotlight, researchers struggle to find the cause of the disease - 2min.

AIDS becomes front page news in 1985 when Rock Hudson announces his homosexuality, and also that he is carrying the disease. The disease starts to spread within the homosexual community, and researchers struggle to contain the disease. They begin to look for "Patient Zero," or the first carrier of the disease within the US. Soon this search leads to a Canadian flight attendant. Rock Hudson died less than 3 months after he announced he was suffering from the disease, on October 2, 1985. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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AIDS: Research Laboratory in USA
06:14
SD RM English

USA

AIDS: Research Laboratory in USA

AIDS: Research Laboratory in USA


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AIDS: interviews with experten
03:04
SD RM English

USA

AIDS: interviews with experten

AIDS becomes front page news in 1985 when Rock Hudson announces his homosexuality, and also that he is carrying the disease. The disease starts to spread within the homosexual community, and researchers struggle to contain the disease. They begin to look for "Patient Zero," or the first carrier of the disease within the US. Soon this search leads to a Canadian flight attendant. Rock Hudson died less than 3 months after he announced he was suffering from the disease, on October 2, 1985. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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Aids: Infected little boy
03:55
SD RM

United States

Aids: Infected little boy

Aids: Infected little boy medical examination, still in baby carriage, at home with family, drugs at home, taking medicine, hospital, medical checking, height measurement, going to playground


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Aids: Hospital for Aids patients
01:06
SD RM

United States, New York

Aids: Hospital for Aids patients

Aids: Hospital for Aids patients patients, learning to walk again, corridor, laboratory, nurses, lab work


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