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1909 - Suffragette Demonstrations: Women battle for equal rights
08:18
SD RM English

United Kingdom, London

1909 - Suffragette Demonstrations: Women battle for equal rights

The campaign for women"s suffrage was intensified by the founding of the Women"s Social and Political Union. The WSPU - associated particularly with Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia - was far more militant than the National Union of Women"s Suffrage Societies, led by Milicent Garrett Fawcett. WSPU members, known as "suffragettes", became increasingly violent in the years before World War One, as successive governments failed to reform the voting laws. The harsh manner in which imprisoned suffragettes were treated, including forcible feeding of women on hunger strike, contributed to the growing public sympathy for the cause of women"s suffrage (in tandem with imaginative - and legal - campaigning of the moderate NUWSS).


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1909 - Suffragette Demonstrations: Women battle for equal rights
08:12
SD RM master

United Kingdom, London

1909 - Suffragette Demonstrations: Women battle for equal rights

The campaign for women"s suffrage was intensified by the founding of the Women"s Social and Political Union. The WSPU - associated particularly with Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, Christabel and Sylvia - was far more militant than the National Union of Women"s Suffrage Societies, led by Milicent Garrett Fawcett. WSPU members, known as "suffragettes", became increasingly violent in the years before World War One, as successive governments failed to reform the voting laws. The harsh manner in which imprisoned suffragettes were treated, including forcible feeding of women on hunger strike, contributed to the growing public sympathy for the cause of women"s suffrage (in tandem with imaginative - and legal - campaigning of the moderate NUWSS).


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1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag
08:15
SD RM English

Germany, Berlin

1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag

On November 9th, 1918, a man leans out of a window in the Reichstag and proclaims the Republic. Philipp Scheidemann was a German Social Democratic politican and the first who became Chancellor of the Weimar Republic.


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1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag
08:14
SD RM master

Germany, Berlin

1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag

On November 9th, 1918, a man leans out of a window in the Reichstag and proclaims the Republic. Philipp Scheidemann was a German Social Democratic politican and the first who became Chancellor of the Weimar Republic.


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1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag
09:08
SD RM German

Germany, Berlin

1918 - The Revolution in Germany: Scheidemann proclaiming the German Republic out of a window in the Reichstag

On November 9th, 1918, a man leans out of a window in the Reichstag and proclaims the Republic. Philipp Scheidemann was a German Social Democratic politican and the first who became Chancellor of the Weimar Republic.


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1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I
08:22
SD RM English

France, Versailles

1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I

The 1919 Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty created as a result of the twelve-month-long Paris Peace Conference in 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred on June 28, 1919. The treaty was ratified on January 10, 1920 and required that Germany and its allies accept responsibility for causing the war and pay large amounts of compensation (known as war reparations). Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, the very place where the German Empire had been proclaimed, January 18, 1871. The choice of venue was not coincidental.


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1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I
08:12
SD RM master

France, Versailles

1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I

The 1919 Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty created as a result of the twelve-month-long Paris Peace Conference in 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred on June 28, 1919. The treaty was ratified on January 10, 1920 and required that Germany and its allies accept responsibility for causing the war and pay large amounts of compensation (known as war reparations). Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, the very place where the German Empire had been proclaimed, January 18, 1871. The choice of venue was not coincidental.


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1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I
09:09
SD RM German

France, Versailles

1919 - Treaty of Versailles: the peace treaties at the end of World War I

The 1919 Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty created as a result of the twelve-month-long Paris Peace Conference in 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. The ceremonial signing of the treaty with Germany occurred on June 28, 1919. The treaty was ratified on January 10, 1920 and required that Germany and its allies accept responsibility for causing the war and pay large amounts of compensation (known as war reparations). Like many other treaties, it is named for the place of its signing: the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, the very place where the German Empire had been proclaimed, January 18, 1871. The choice of venue was not coincidental.


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1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy
08:25
SD RM English

Italy, Rome

1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy

On October 24th, 1922, Benito Mussolini, leader of the Fascist party in Italy, announced at a conference in Naples his intent to seize power by marching on Rome. Six days later, some 40,000 armed Fascists entered Rome without resistance and the king appointed Mussolini to the Italian premiership. Initially the head of a coalition government, Mussolini gradually transformed himself into the dictator of a one-party state.


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1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy
08:18
SD RM master

Italy, Rome

1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy

On October 24th, 1922, Benito Mussolini, leader of the Fascist party in Italy, announced at a conference in Naples his intent to seize power by marching on Rome. Six days later, some 40,000 armed Fascists entered Rome without resistance and the king appointed Mussolini to the Italian premiership. Initially the head of a coalition government, Mussolini gradually transformed himself into the dictator of a one-party state.


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1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy
09:14
SD RM German

Italy, Rome

1922 - The Seizure of Power: March on Rome, Mussolini became the 40th Prime Minister of Italy

On October 24th, 1922, Benito Mussolini, leader of the Fascist party in Italy, announced at a conference in Naples his intent to seize power by marching on Rome. Six days later, some 40,000 armed Fascists entered Rome without resistance and the king appointed Mussolini to the Italian premiership. Initially the head of a coalition government, Mussolini gradually transformed himself into the dictator of a one-party state.


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1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March
08:23
SD RM English

India, Arabian Sea

1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March

On March 12th, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi sets off with 78 followers on a 200-mile protest march towards the sea to protest the British monopoly on salt. More will join them during the Salt March that ends on April 5th. He gained worldwide publicity through his policies of civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and the use of fasting as a form of protest. The British authorities repeatedly imprisoned him. His longest term of imprisonment began on March 18th, 1922 when he was sentenced to six years for civil disobedience; he only served 2 years of that sentence, however. Gandhi spent a total of 2,338 days in prison during his lifetime. His philosophy of non-violence, for which he coined the term satyagraha, has influenced both national and international movements for peaceful change.


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1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March
08:17
SD RM master

India, Arabian Sea

1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March

On March 12th, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi sets off with 78 followers on a 200-mile protest march towards the sea to protest the British monopoly on salt. More will join them during the Salt March that ends on April 5th. He gained worldwide publicity through his policies of civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and the use of fasting as a form of protest. The British authorities repeatedly imprisoned him. His longest term of imprisonment began on March 18th, 1922 when he was sentenced to six years for civil disobedience; he only served 2 years of that sentence, however. Gandhi spent a total of 2,338 days in prison during his lifetime. His philosophy of non-violence, for which he coined the term satyagraha, has influenced both national and international movements for peaceful change.


cart/download

1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March
09:12
SD RM German

India, Arabian Sea

1930 - Gandhi: The Salt March

On March 12th, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi sets off with 78 followers on a 200-mile protest march towards the sea to protest the British monopoly on salt. More will join them during the Salt March that ends on April 5th. He gained worldwide publicity through his policies of civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and the use of fasting as a form of protest. The British authorities repeatedly imprisoned him. His longest term of imprisonment began on March 18th, 1922 when he was sentenced to six years for civil disobedience; he only served 2 years of that sentence, however. Gandhi spent a total of 2,338 days in prison during his lifetime. His philosophy of non-violence, for which he coined the term satyagraha, has influenced both national and international movements for peaceful change.


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1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic
08:23
SD RM English

Germany, Weimar

1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic

Perhaps the greatest catalyst for the collapse of the Republic lies in the Wall Street Crash, or more correctly its aftermath. The grounds for the German recovery were overly dependent on loans from America under the Dawes and then Young plans. However, with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, America was forced to recall her debts, this directly led to the deterioration of Germany"s economy and in turn party relations in the Riechstag, a catastrophic event when a country is ruled by coalitions. Following this, Heinrich Bruning was appointed as Chancellor in March 1930; it was the deterioration of the coalition system that led to Hindenburg allowing Bruning to rule by presidential decree, known as Article 48, should he require it. This meant that the Riechstag had to merely tolerate his decrees and not support them. Yet in 1930, the Riechstag refused Bruning"s emergency measures to compensate for the failing economy, which included cutting government spending on things such as wages and welfare payments. This led to an increase on imported goods, especially food, to help German farmers and the buying up of company shares by the government to support deflation. Bruning returned the measures under Article 48 and dissolved the Riechstag; he then called an election, as he believed that it would return a majority for him. This was his first mistake, as it resulted in the Nazi party becoming the second largest party in the Riechstag; and this meant that Bruning could now only rule by decree, providing that the Social Democrats did not move against him. And Bruning knew that they would not as they were fearful of a Nazi take-over. Bruning remained in power until 1932 and by 1933 Hitler was Chancellor, yet in the 8 months between their reigns there were still to be 2 other Chancellors, von Papen and Schleicher. The extraordinary thing is, however, is the fact that both supported Hitler"s appointment and pushed Hindenburg into it, against his better judgment. It was von Papen"s belief that he could control Hitler like a puppet. This is an ideal political position, the idea is that you retain power and use somebody else as your public face. If things go badly, your own career and reputation remain intact.


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1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic
08:16
SD RM master

Germany, Weimar

1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic

Perhaps the greatest catalyst for the collapse of the Republic lies in the Wall Street Crash, or more correctly its aftermath. The grounds for the German recovery were overly dependent on loans from America under the Dawes and then Young plans. However, with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, America was forced to recall her debts, this directly led to the deterioration of Germany"s economy and in turn party relations in the Riechstag, a catastrophic event when a country is ruled by coalitions. Following this, Heinrich Bruning was appointed as Chancellor in March 1930; it was the deterioration of the coalition system that led to Hindenburg allowing Bruning to rule by presidential decree, known as Article 48, should he require it. This meant that the Riechstag had to merely tolerate his decrees and not support them. Yet in 1930, the Riechstag refused Bruning"s emergency measures to compensate for the failing economy, which included cutting government spending on things such as wages and welfare payments. This led to an increase on imported goods, especially food, to help German farmers and the buying up of company shares by the government to support deflation. Bruning returned the measures under Article 48 and dissolved the Riechstag; he then called an election, as he believed that it would return a majority for him. This was his first mistake, as it resulted in the Nazi party becoming the second largest party in the Riechstag; and this meant that Bruning could now only rule by decree, providing that the Social Democrats did not move against him. And Bruning knew that they would not as they were fearful of a Nazi take-over. Bruning remained in power until 1932 and by 1933 Hitler was Chancellor, yet in the 8 months between their reigns there were still to be 2 other Chancellors, von Papen and Schleicher. The extraordinary thing is, however, is the fact that both supported Hitler"s appointment and pushed Hindenburg into it, against his better judgment. It was von Papen"s belief that he could control Hitler like a puppet. This is an ideal political position, the idea is that you retain power and use somebody else as your public face. If things go badly, your own career and reputation remain intact.


cart/download

1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic
09:12
SD RM German

Germany, Weimar

1932 - The Crisis: The End of the Weimar Republic

Perhaps the greatest catalyst for the collapse of the Republic lies in the Wall Street Crash, or more correctly its aftermath. The grounds for the German recovery were overly dependent on loans from America under the Dawes and then Young plans. However, with the Wall Street Crash of 1929, America was forced to recall her debts, this directly led to the deterioration of Germany"s economy and in turn party relations in the Riechstag, a catastrophic event when a country is ruled by coalitions. Following this, Heinrich Bruning was appointed as Chancellor in March 1930; it was the deterioration of the coalition system that led to Hindenburg allowing Bruning to rule by presidential decree, known as Article 48, should he require it. This meant that the Riechstag had to merely tolerate his decrees and not support them. Yet in 1930, the Riechstag refused Bruning"s emergency measures to compensate for the failing economy, which included cutting government spending on things such as wages and welfare payments. This led to an increase on imported goods, especially food, to help German farmers and the buying up of company shares by the government to support deflation. Bruning returned the measures under Article 48 and dissolved the Riechstag; he then called an election, as he believed that it would return a majority for him. This was his first mistake, as it resulted in the Nazi party becoming the second largest party in the Riechstag; and this meant that Bruning could now only rule by decree, providing that the Social Democrats did not move against him. And Bruning knew that they would not as they were fearful of a Nazi take-over. Bruning remained in power until 1932 and by 1933 Hitler was Chancellor, yet in the 8 months between their reigns there were still to be 2 other Chancellors, von Papen and Schleicher. The extraordinary thing is, however, is the fact that both supported Hitler"s appointment and pushed Hindenburg into it, against his better judgment. It was von Papen"s belief that he could control Hitler like a puppet. This is an ideal political position, the idea is that you retain power and use somebody else as your public face. If things go badly, your own career and reputation remain intact.


cart/download

1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung
08:11
SD RM English

Germany, Berlin

1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was officially sworn in as Chancellor in the Reichstag chamber with thousands of Nazi supporters looking on and cheering. In the March, 1933 elections the Nazis received 44 % of the vote. The party gained control of a majority of seats in the Reichstag through a formal coalition with the DNVP. After the Reichtag was set on fire (and the communists blamed for it) the Enabling Act gave Hitler dictatorial authority, passed by the Reichstag after the Nazis expelled the Communist deputies. Under the Enabling Act, the Nazi cabinet had the power to pass legislation just as the Reichstag did. The Act further specified that the cabinet could only approve measures submitted by the Chancellor (Hitler) and that it would lapse after four years time or upon the installation of a new government. The Enabling Act was dutifully renewed every four years, even during World War II.


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1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung
08:06
SD RM master

Germany, Berlin

1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was officially sworn in as Chancellor in the Reichstag chamber with thousands of Nazi supporters looking on and cheering. In the March, 1933 elections the Nazis received 44 % of the vote. The party gained control of a majority of seats in the Reichstag through a formal coalition with the DNVP. After the Reichtag was set on fire (and the communists blamed for it) the Enabling Act gave Hitler dictatorial authority, passed by the Reichstag after the Nazis expelled the Communist deputies. Under the Enabling Act, the Nazi cabinet had the power to pass legislation just as the Reichstag did. The Act further specified that the cabinet could only approve measures submitted by the Chancellor (Hitler) and that it would lapse after four years time or upon the installation of a new government. The Enabling Act was dutifully renewed every four years, even during World War II.


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1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung
08:59
SD RM German

Germany, Berlin

1933 – The takeover of Hitler: Machtergreifung

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was officially sworn in as Chancellor in the Reichstag chamber with thousands of Nazi supporters looking on and cheering. In the March, 1933 elections the Nazis received 44 % of the vote. The party gained control of a majority of seats in the Reichstag through a formal coalition with the DNVP. After the Reichtag was set on fire (and the communists blamed for it) the Enabling Act gave Hitler dictatorial authority, passed by the Reichstag after the Nazis expelled the Communist deputies. Under the Enabling Act, the Nazi cabinet had the power to pass legislation just as the Reichstag did. The Act further specified that the cabinet could only approve measures submitted by the Chancellor (Hitler) and that it would lapse after four years time or upon the installation of a new government. The Enabling Act was dutifully renewed every four years, even during World War II.


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