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10th Olympics, Los Angeles, 1932: 100 metres women's, Stanisława Walasiewicz (Stella Walsh) -  not women, but men (fraud)
00:18
SD RM

United States, Los Angeles

10th Olympics, Los Angeles, 1932: 100 metres women's, Stanisława Walasiewicz (Stella Walsh) - not women, but men (fraud)

Poland's Stanisława Walasiewicz - Stella Walsh - won the gold medal in the women's 100 meters; she would also win the silver medal in the event four years later. After her death in 1980, it was discovered that she was intersex and would have been ineligible to participate. Stanisława Walasiewicz, also known as Stefania Walasiewicz,[1] Stanisława Walasiewiczówna (see Polish name) and Stella Walsh (3 April 1911 – 4 December 1980) was a Polish athlete, who became a women's Olympic champion. It was later learned that Walasiewicz had ambiguous genitalia and could not easily be identified as either biologically male or female. The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a Summer Olympic Games which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations and athletes were unable to pay for the trip to Los Angeles. Fewer than half the participants of the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam returned to compete in 1932. US President Herbert Hoover did not attend the Games, becoming the first sitting head of government not to appear at an Olympics hosted in that country. The organizing committee put no record of the finances of the Games in their report, though contemporary newspapers reported that the Games had made a profit of US$1,000,000.


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1900, End and beginning of a century: holiday by the sea - swimming
00:19
SD RM

Germany, Heringsdorf

1900, End and beginning of a century: holiday by the sea - swimming

End and beginning of a century: holiday by the sea


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1900, End and beginning of a century: Poverty, misery, tuberculosis
00:12
SD RM

Germany, Berlin

1900, End and beginning of a century: Poverty, misery, tuberculosis

End and beginning of a century: Poverty, misery, tuberculosis


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1928 - Alexander Fleming: discovers Penicillin
08:15
SD RM master

United Kingdom, Oxford

1928 - Alexander Fleming: discovers Penicillin

Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II. In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.


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1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin
08:23
SD RM English

United Kingdom, Oxford

1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin

Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II. In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
08:15
SD RM English

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
08:10
SD RM master

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization
09:05
SD RM German

United Kingdom, Oldham General Hospital

1978 - The first test tube baby: Louise Brown the first person to be conceived by in vitro fertilization

Louise Joy Brown (born July 25th, 1978) was the world’s first baby to be born from the in vitro fertilization procedure. She is currently a postal worker; previously she was a daycare centre worker in Bristol. Louise Joy Brown was born to Lesley and John Brown of UK, who had been trying to conceive for nine years, but without success due to Lesley’s blocked Fallopian tubes. On November 10th, 1977, Lesley Brown underwent the procedure by Drs. Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards. This procedure raised ethical questions about whether or not the doctors would be committing murder when they discard some of the unused fertilized eggs. Brown was born at 11:47 pm at Oldham General Hospital, Oldham, through caesarean section. She weighed 5 lb 12 oz. (2.608 kg). Brown is engaged as of 2003.


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
08:27
5 clips SD RM English

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
08:17
SD RM master

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim
09:15
SD RM German

United States, Los Angeles

1985 - Rock Hudson: becomes the first famous AIDS Victim

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. AIDS is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. To date, there are no cures for either HIV infection nor AIDS, which are chronic medical conditions, but which are treatable by a variety of antiretroviral drugs. This treatment delays the progression of HIV infection to AIDS, and reduces the rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to the disease. Rock Hudson (November 17, 1925 - October 2, 1985) was an American actor, famous for his rugged good looks. The first major American celebrity to admit that he had AIDS, his announcement of and subsequent death from the disease at the age of fifty-nine brought it to wider public attention in the United States .


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1993 - The UN flees Somalia
08:26
SD RM English

Somalia

1993 - The UN flees Somalia

United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995. UNOSOM II carried on from the United States-controlled (but UN-sanctioned) Unified Task Force (UNITAF), which had in turn taken over from the ineffectual United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) mission. All three of these interventions were aimed at creating a secure enough environment for humanitarian operations to be carried out in the increasingly lawless and famine-stricken country. The UNOSOM II intervention is well-known for the Battle of Mogadishu and the resulting events portrayed in the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, and its associated film Black Hawk Down.   On October 3, 1993, Task Force Ranger raided a hotel in Mogadishu in which Aidid was thought to be hiding. What ensued was the longest, bloodiest and deadliest battle for US troops in Somalia. In what later became known as the Battle of Mogadishu, eighteen US soldiers were killed. Images of their dead bodies being dragged through the streets were broadcast on television stations all over the world, horrifying and infuriating the American public.


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1993 - The UN flees Somalia
08:26
SD RM master

Somalia

1993 - The UN flees Somalia

United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995. UNOSOM II carried on from the United States-controlled (but UN-sanctioned) Unified Task Force (UNITAF), which had in turn taken over from the ineffectual United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) mission. All three of these interventions were aimed at creating a secure enough environment for humanitarian operations to be carried out in the increasingly lawless and famine-stricken country. The UNOSOM II intervention is well-known for the Battle of Mogadishu and the resulting events portrayed in the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, and its associated film Black Hawk Down.   On October 3, 1993, Task Force Ranger raided a hotel in Mogadishu in which Aidid was thought to be hiding. What ensued was the longest, bloodiest and deadliest battle for US troops in Somalia. In what later became known as the Battle of Mogadishu, eighteen US soldiers were killed. Images of their dead bodies being dragged through the streets were broadcast on television stations all over the world, horrifying and infuriating the American public.


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1993 - The UN flees Somalia
09:15
SD RM German

Somalia

1993 - The UN flees Somalia

United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995. UNOSOM II carried on from the United States-controlled (but UN-sanctioned) Unified Task Force (UNITAF), which had in turn taken over from the ineffectual United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) mission. All three of these interventions were aimed at creating a secure enough environment for humanitarian operations to be carried out in the increasingly lawless and famine-stricken country. The UNOSOM II intervention is well-known for the Battle of Mogadishu and the resulting events portrayed in the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, and its associated film Black Hawk Down.   On October 3, 1993, Task Force Ranger raided a hotel in Mogadishu in which Aidid was thought to be hiding. What ensued was the longest, bloodiest and deadliest battle for US troops in Somalia. In what later became known as the Battle of Mogadishu, eighteen US soldiers were killed. Images of their dead bodies being dragged through the streets were broadcast on television stations all over the world, horrifying and infuriating the American public.


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Ludovika and Walter Jakobsson, Figure skating, pairs, gold, Finnland
00:16
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Ludovika and Walter Jakobsson, Figure skating, pairs, gold, Finnland

Ludovika and Walter Jakobsson, Figure skating, pairs,gold, Finnland The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Gillis Grafström, figure skating,men's singles, gold, Sweden
00:11
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Gillis Grafström, figure skating,men's singles, gold, Sweden

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Gillis Grafström, Men's singles, gold, Sweden The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics),Gillis Grafström, Men's singles, gold, Sweden


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Magda Mauroy-Julin, figure skating, Ladies' singles, gold, Sweden
00:06
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Magda Mauroy-Julin, figure skating, Ladies' singles, gold, Sweden

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Canada, Ice hockey team, gold
00:08
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - Canada, Ice hockey team, gold

Canadas ice hockey team: Robert Benson, Walter Byron, Frank Fredrickson, Chris Fridfinnson, Magnus Goodman, Haldor Halderson, Konrad Johanneson, Allan Woodman, The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - decked city
00:11
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - decked city

The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).


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7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - The Dutch team in your boat hotel
00:06
SD RM

Belgium, Antwerp

7th Olympics: Antwerp, 1920 - The Dutch team in your boat hotel

The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. The 1920 Games were awarded to Antwerp to honor the people of that city after the suffering they endured during World War I. The initial choice for the site of the Games had been Budapest, Hungary. Though the majority of events took place in Belgium, there was a single sailing event which took place in Dutch waters and as such, the games were officially in both countries. The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were canceled due to the war. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Budapest had initially been selected to host the Games over Amsterdam and Lyon, but as the Austro-Hungarian Empire had been a German ally in the First World War, the Games were transferred to Antwerp in April 1919. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey were also banned from competing in the Games. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).


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