1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin (00:08:23)

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1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin

Rights-Managed, Editorial

Location and time:

United Kingdom, Oxford, 1928


Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced

Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II.

In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.

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Arabic :

عام 1928، البنسلين، ألكسندر فليمنغ، والطب، والحرب العالمية، على جائزة نوبل، البحوث، المملكة المتحدة، أكسفورد، المرض، Penicillium، PCN، القلم، والمضادات الحيوية، والمكورات العنقودية، التهابات، والبكتيريا، والمضادات الحيوية بيتا لاكتام، البنسليوم Penicillium، الزهري، الغرغرينا، السل، بيولوجي، صيدلي، القرن الحادي والعشرين، اكتشاف الأدوية الطبية، والطبية، دواء، الصحة، مستشفى، المرضية، المريض، والشفاء، ومستشفى سانت ماري، البنسلين G، البنسلين والبروكايين،، بنسلين benzathine، البنسلين الخامس، العدوى البكتيرية، لقطات الاكتشاف، لقطات الطب، لقطات المرض، نورمان هيتلي، هانز شاديوالدت، ريد ناثان،,

Bulgarian :

1928, пеницилин, Александър Флеминг, медицина, Втората световна война, лауреат на Нобелова награда, изследвания, Великобритания, Оксфорд, заболяване, Penicillium, ПКН, перо, антибиотици, Staphylococcus, инфекции, бактерии, бета-лактамни антибиотици, Penicillium означаване на числа, сифилис, гангрена, туберкулоза, биолог, фармаколог, 20-ти век, откритие, медицински, лекарствени, лекарства, лекарство, здраве, болница, болни, пациента, изцеление, St Mary болница, пеницилин G, прокаин пеницилин, Бензатин пеницилин, пеницилин V, бактериални инфекции, откриване на кадри, медицина кадри, заболяване кадри, Норман Хийтли, Ханс Schadewaldt, Нейтън Рийд, ,

Catalan :

1928, penicil·lina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, Guerra Mundial, el Premi Nobel, Research, Regne Unit, Oxford, malaltia, Penicillium, PCN, bolígraf, antibiòtics, Staphylococcus, infeccions, bacteris, antibiòtics betalactàmics, Penicillium notatum, sífilis, gangrena, tuberculosi, biòleg, farmacòleg, del segle XX, descobriment, mèdic, medicinal, medicament, medicament, salut, hospital, malalts, pacient, curació, hospital St Mary, penicil·lina G, penicil·lina procaïna, mitjançant penicil·lina benzatina, penicil·lina V, infeccions bacterianes, imatges de descobriment, imatges de Medicina, imatges de la malaltia, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Chinese Simplified :

1928 年,青霉素,亚历山大 · 弗莱明、 医药、 世界大战、 诺贝尔奖、 研究,联合王国、 牛津、 疾病,青霉、 PCN、 笔、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 细菌、 β-内酰胺类抗生素、 特异青霉菌、 梅毒、 坏疽、 结核病、 生物学家、 药理学家, 20 世纪, 发现、 医疗、 药用、 药物、 药剂、 健康、 医院、 病人、 病人、 愈合、 圣玛丽医院、 青霉素 G、 普鲁卡因青霉素、 苄星青霉素,青霉素 V,细菌感染, 发现的镜头, 医学素材 疾病的影片片段,诺曼 · 希特利,Hans Schadewaldt、 弥敦道芦苇,

Chinese Traditional :

1928 年,青黴素,亞歷山大 · 弗萊明、 醫藥、 世界大戰、 諾貝爾獎、 研究,聯合王國、 牛津、 疾病,青黴、 PCN、 筆、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 細菌、 β-內醯胺類抗生素、 特異青黴菌、 梅毒、 壞疽、 結核病、 生物學家、 藥理學家, 20 世紀, 發現、 醫療、 藥用、 藥物、 藥劑、 健康、 醫院、 病人、 病人、 癒合、 聖瑪麗醫院、 青黴素 G、 普魯卡因青黴素、 苄星青黴素,青黴素 V,細菌感染, 發現的鏡頭, 醫學素材 疾病的影片片段,諾曼 · 希特利,Hans Schadewaldt、 彌敦道蘆葦,

Czech :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, medicína, světová válka, nositel Nobelovy ceny, výzkum, Velká Británie, Oxford, nemoci, Penicillium, PCN, pero, antibiotika, Staphylococcus infekce, bakterie, Beta laktamová antibiotika, Penicillium notatum, syfilis, gangréna, tuberkulóza, biolog, farmakolog, století, objev lékařské, léčba, léky, lék, zdraví, nemocnice, nemocné, pacient, léčení, St Mary, penicilin G, Prokain penicilin, nemocnice benzathine penicilinu, penicilin v., bakteriální infekce, Discovery záběry, medicína záběry, nemoc záběry, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Danish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, World War, Nobelprisen, forskning, Storbritannien, Oxford, sygdom, Penicillium, PCN, pen, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, Beta-lactam antibiotika, Penicillium notat, syfilis, koldbrand, tuberkulose, biolog, farmakolog, 1900-tallet Discovery, medicinske, medicinske, medicin, medikament, sundhed, hospital, syge, patienten, healing, St Mary hospital, penicillin G, procain penicillin, benzathine penicillin, penicillin V, bakterielle infektioner, Discovery optagelser, medicin optagelser, sygdom optagelser, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Dutch :

1928, penicilline, Alexander Fleming, geneeskunde, wereld oorlog, Nobelprijs, onderzoek, Verenigd Koninkrijk, Oxford, ziekte, Penicillium, PCN, pen, antibiotica, Staphylococcus, infecties, bacteriën, bèta-lactam-antibioticum antibiotica, Penicillium ontwikkelde, syfilis, gangreen, tuberculose, bioloog, farmacoloog, 20e eeuw ontdekking, medische, geneesmiddelen, medicatie, geneesmiddel, gezondheid, ziekenhuis, zieken, patiënt, genezing, St Mary ziekenhuis, penicilline G, novocaïne penicilline, benzathine penicilline, penicilline V, bacteriële infecties, ontdekking beeldmateriaal, geneeskunde beeldmateriaal, ziekte beeldmateriaal, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Estonian :

1928, penitsilliini, Alexander Fleming, meditsiin, maailmasõda, Nobeli preemia, teadusuuringute, Suurbritannia, Oxford, haiguse, Penicillium, PCN, pliiatsi ja antibiootikumid, Staphylococcus, infektsioonid, bakterid, beeta-laktaamantibiootikumide, Penicillium notatum, süüfilis, gangreen, tuberkuloosi, bioloog, farmakoloog, 20. sajandil Discovery, meditsiini, ravimite, ravi, ravim, tervise, haigla, haige, patsient, tervendav, St Mary haigla, penitsilliin G, prokaiin penitsilliini, benzathine penitsilliini, penitsilliin V, bakteriaalsed infektsioonid, Discovery filmimaterjali, meditsiin filmimaterjali, haiguse filmimaterjali, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Finnish :

1928, penisilliini, Alexander Fleming, lääketiede, Nobel-palkinnon, maailmansota, sairaus, Oxford, tutkimus, Iso-Britannia Penicillium, PCN, kynä, antibiootteja, Staphylococcus, infektioita, bakteerit, beetalaktaamiantibioottien, Penicillium tehdä, kuppa, kuolio, tuberkuloosi, biologi, aivotutkija 1900-luvun Discovery, lääketieteen, lääkkeiden, lääkitys, lääke, terveys, sairaala, sairas, potilas, paranemista, St Mary sairaala, penisilliini G, prokaiini penisilliini, bentsatiinibentsyylipenisilliiniä penisilliini, penisilliini V, bakteeri-infektiot Discovery materiaalia, lääke materiaalia, sairauden materiaalia, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

French :

1928, la pénicilline, Alexander Fleming, médecine, guerre mondiale, prix Nobel, Research, Royaume-Uni, Oxford, maladie, Penicillium, PCN, stylo, antibiotiques, Staphylococcus, infections, bactéries, antibiotiques bêta-lactamines, Penicillium notatum, la syphilis, la gangrène, la tuberculose, biologiste, pharmacologue, XXe siècle, découverte, médicaux, médicaments, médicaments, médicament, santé, hôpital, malade, patient, guérison, l'hôpital St Mary, pénicilline G, procaïne pénicilline, benzathine pénicilline, la pénicilline V, infections bactériennes, images de la découverte, images de médecine, images de la maladie, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Greek :

1928, πενικιλίνη, Αλέξανδρος Φλέμιγκ, ιατρικής, παγκόσμιος πόλεμος, βραβείο Νόμπελ, έρευνα, Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο, Οξφόρδη, ασθένεια, Penicillium PCN, στυλό, αντιβιοτικά, σταφυλόκοκκος, λοιμώξεις, βακτήρια, β-λακτάμης αντιβιοτικά, Penicillium notatum, σύφιλη, γάγγραινα, φυματίωση, βιολόγος, φαρμακολόγος, 20ου αιώνα, ανακάλυψη, ιατρικό, φαρμακευτικό, φαρμακευτική αγωγή, φάρμακο, υγεία, νοσοκομείο, αρρώστους, ασθενής, επούλωση, νοσοκομείο St Mary, πενικιλλίνη G, προκαΐνη πενικιλίνη, Βενζαθινικής πενικιλλίνης, πενικιλλίνη V, βακτηριακές λοιμώξεις, ανακάλυψη πλάνα, υλικό ιατρικής, ασθένεια πλάνα, Norman ΧΙΤΛΙ, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Haitian Creole :

1928, pelisilin, Alexander Fleming, medikaman, gè mondyal, pwi nobèl, rechèch ki fèt, nan peyi wa, Oxford, maladi, Penicillium, PCN, plim, manje antibiotik Staphylococcus, enfeksyon, bakteri, antibiotik sou non-lactam, Penicillium notatum, san gate, angrenn, maladi fini anwo depye, biologist, pharmacologist, 20tyèm syèk, jwenn, medikal, renmèd, medikaman, medicament, sante, lopital, malad, moun ki malad, renmèd, lopital Sen Mary, pelisilin G, procaine pelisilin, benzathine pelisilin, pelisilin V, enfeksyon bakteri, jwenn métrage, medikaman métrage, maladi métrage, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Hebrew :

1928, פניצילין, אלכסנדר פלמינג, רפואה, מלחמת העולם, פרס נובל, מחקר, אנגליה, אוקספורד, מחלה, Penicillium PCN, עט, אנטיביוטיקה, סטפילוקוקוס, זיהומים, חיידקים, בטא אנטיביוטיקה lactam, Penicillium notatum, עגבת, נמק, שחפת, ביולוג, פרמקולוגית, המאה ה-20, גילוי רפואי, צמחי מרפא, תרופות, תרופה, בריאות, בית החולים, חולה, חולה, ריפוי, החולים סיינט מרי, פניצילין G, פניצילין procaine, benzathine פניצילין, פניצילין V, זיהומים חיידקיים, גילוי מדה. מדה רפואה, מחלה מדה, נורמן Heatley, הנס Schadewaldt, נתן ריד,

Hindi :

1928, पेनिसिलिन, अलेक्जेंडर फ्लेमिंग, चिकित्सा, विश्व युद्ध, नोबेल पुरस्कार, अनुसंधान, यूनाइटेड किंगडम, ऑक्सफोर्ड, बीमारी, Penicillium, PCN, पेन, एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं, Staphylococcus, संक्रमण, जीवाणु, एंटीबायोटिक दवाओं के बीटा-lactam, Penicillium notatum, उपदंश, पंजों, तपेदिक, जीवविज्ञानी, फर्माकोलॉजिस्ट, 20 वीं सदी, डिस्कवरी, चिकित्सा, औषधीय, दवा, औषधि, स्वास्थ्य, अस्पताल, बीमार, रोगी, हीलिंग, सेंट मैरी अस्पताल, पेनिसिलिन जी, procaine पेनिसिलिन, benzathine पेनिसिलिन, पेनिसिलिन V, जीवाणु संक्रमण, डिस्कवरी फुटेज, दवा फुटेज, बीमारी फुटेज, नॉर्मन Heatley, हैंस Schadewaldt, नाथन रीड, ,

Hungarian :

1928-ban, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, orvostudomány, World War, Nobel-díjas, kutatás, Egyesült Királyság, Oxford, betegség, Penicillium, TK, toll, antibiotikumok, Staphylococcus, fertőzések, baktériumok, béta-laktám antibiotikumok, Penicillin jelölés, szifilisz, üszkösödés, tuberkulózis, biológus, farmakológus, a huszadik század felfedezés, orvosi, gyógyszer, gyógyszer, gyógyszer, egészség, kórház, beteg, beteg, gyógyító, St Mary kórházi, penicillin G, prokainnal penicillin, benzatin penicillin, penicillin V, bakteriális fertőzések, Discovery felvételeket, orvostudomány felvételeket, betegség felvételeket, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Japanese :

1928 年、ペニシリン、アレクサンダー ・ フレミング、医学、世界大戦、ノーベル賞、研究、イギリス、オックスフォード、病気、ペニシリウム、PCN、ペン、抗生物質、黄色ブドウ球菌、感染症、細菌、β-ラクタム系抗生物質、ペニシリウム-notatum、梅毒、壊疽、結核、生物学者、薬理学者、 20 世紀には、 発見、医療、医薬品、薬物、薬物、健康、病院、病気、患者、癒し、聖マリア病院、ペニシリン G、プロカイン ペニシリン、ベンジルペニシリンベンザチン、ペニシリン V、細菌感染症、 発見映像 医学映像 病気映像、ノーマン ・ ヒートリー、ハンス ・ Schadewaldt、ネイサンのリード、,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "The propaganda minister of the Empire prohibited the German press – and he could prohibit in a totalitarian state – to use the word penicillin. He wanted the people to know about a German invention, Domagk. He never wanted to admit that the English had found a very efficient agent, penicillin. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "Hitler’s doctor, Morell, wrote a study where he identified penicillin as a new medicine. This case study was immediately encrypted and only a few people got to read this document. So even doctors were not allowed to know about it. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "We only suspected that a new medicine had been discovered. They said that the Americans had something similar. In North Africa they found a sizeable quantity of penicillin in English warehouses. But this was only stolen material and not from their own production. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "On one side they try to kill as many people as possible – on the other side they have a medicine that could save the lives of those soldiers who would die without the medicine. This was a great military advantage. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "We started our research as the war broke out on 1st October 1939. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "“He realised that the fungus contained some substance which stopped the development of the streptococcus. This was penicillin.” "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "At that time no-one took him seriously and soon they forgot his discovery. Surely nobody would remember this. If Fleming would not have recorded it, today we would not have penicillin. "




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15-11-2010 15:30:53

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