1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin (00:08:23)

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1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin

Rights-Managed, Editorial

Location and time:

United Kingdom, Oxford, 1928


Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are Beta-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

The term "penicillin" can also refer to the mixture of substances that are naturally, and organically, produced

Sir Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955) discovered the antibiotic substance lysozyme and isolated the antibiotic substance penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. In September 1928, he was sorting through the many idle experiments strewn about his lab. He inspected each specimen before discarding it and noticed an interesting fungal colony had grown as a contaminant on one of the agar plates streaked with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Fleming inspected the Petri dish further and found that the bacterial colonies around the fungus were transparent because their cells were undergoing the process of lysis. Lysis is the breakdown of cells, and in this case, potentially harmful bacteria. The importance was immediately recognized; however, the discovery was still underestimated. Fleming issued a publication about penicillin in the British Journal of Experimental Pathology in 1929. Fleming worked with the mould for some time, but refining and growing it was a difficult process better suited to chemists. Fleming”s impression was that, because of the problem of producing the drug in quantity and because its action seemed slow, it would not be an important resource for treating infection. Furthermore, his initial paper was not well received in the medical community. Fleming, therefore, did not pursue the subject further. It was left to two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain, to develop a method of purifying penicillin to an effective form. Through their work, the drug was available for mass distribution during World War II. For his achievements, Fleming was knighted in 1944. Fleming, Florey, and Chain were the joint recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945. Florey was later given the honor of a peerage for his monumental work in making penicillin available to the public and saving millions of lives in World War II.

In 1928, bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made a chance discovery from an already discarded, contaminated Petri dish. The mold that had contaminated the experiment turned out to contain a powerful antibiotic, penicillin. However, though Fleming was credited with the discovery, it was over a decade before someone else turned penicillin into the miracle drug for the 20th century.

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Arabic :

1928، البنسلين، ألكسندر فليمنغ، والطب، والحرب العالمية، وجائزة نوبل، والبحوث، المملكة المتحدة، أكسفورد، المرض، Penicillium، PCN، القلم، والمضادات الحيوية، المكوّرات العنقودية، التهابات، البكتيريا، والمضادات الحيوية بيتا لاكتام، Penicillium البنسليوم، والزهري، الغرغرينا، السل، بيولوجي، صيدلي، القرن الحادي والعشرين، اكتشاف الأدوية الطبية، والطبية، دواء، الصحة، مستشفى، المرضية، المريض، والشفاء، ومستشفى سانت ماري، البنسلين G، البنسلين والبروكايين،، بنسلين benzathine، البنسلين الخامس، العدوى البكتيرية، لقطات الاكتشاف، لقطات الطب، لقطات المرض، نورمان هيتلي، هانز شاديوالدت، ريد ناثان،,

Catalan :

1928, penicil·lina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, Guerra Mundial, el Premi Nobel, Research, Regne Unit, Oxford, malaltia, Penicillium, PCN, bolígraf, antibiòtics, Staphylococcus, infeccions, bacteris, antibiòtics Beta-lactàmics, Penicillium notatum, sífilis, gangrena, tuberculosi, biòleg, farmacòleg, del segle XX, descobriment, mèdic, medicinal, medicament, medicament, salut, hospital, malalts, pacient, curació, hospital St Mary, penicil·lina G, penicil·lina procaïna, mitjançant penicil·lina benzatina, penicil·lina V, infeccions bacterianes, imatges de descobriment, seqüències de Medicina, seqüències de malaltia, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Chinese Simplified :

1928 年,青霉素,亚历山大 · 弗莱明、 医药、 世界大战、 诺贝尔奖、 研究,联合王国、 牛津大学、 疾病、 青霉、 PCN、 钢笔、 抗生素、 葡萄球菌、 感染、 细菌、 β-内酰胺类抗生素、 特异青霉菌、 梅毒、 坏疽、 肺结核、 生物学家、 药理学家,20 世纪,发现、 医疗、 药用、 药物、 药剂、 卫生、 医院、 病人、 病人、 愈合、 圣玛丽医院、 青霉素 G、 普鲁卡因青霉素、 苄星青霉素,青霉素 V,细菌感染,发现画面医学素材疾病的影片片段,诺曼 · 希特利,Hans Schadewaldt、 弥敦道芦苇,

Czech :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, medicína, světová válka, nositel Nobelovy ceny, výzkum, Velká Británie, Oxford, nemoci, Penicillium, PCN, pero, antibiotika, Staphylococcus infekce, bakterie, Beta laktamová antibiotika, Penicillium notatum, syfilis, gangréna, tuberkulóza, biolog, farmakolog, století, objev lékařské, léčba, léky, lék, zdraví, nemocnice, nemocné, pacient, léčení, St Mary, penicilin G, Prokain penicilin, nemocnice benzathine penicilinu, penicilin v., bakteriální infekce, Discovery záběry, medicína záběry, nemoc záběry, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Danish :

1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medicin, Verdenskrig Nobelprisen, forskning, Storbritannien, Oxford, sygdom, Penicillium, PCN, pen, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infektioner, bakterier, Beta-lactam antibiotika, Penicillium notat, syfilis, koldbrand, tuberkulose, biolog, farmakolog, 1900-tallet Discovery, medicinske, medicinske, medicin, medikament, sundhed, hospital, syge, patienten, healing, St Mary hospital, penicillin G, procain penicillin, benzathine penicillin, penicillin V, bakterielle infektioner, Discovery optagelser, medicin optagelser, sygdom optagelser, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Dutch :

1928, penicilline, Alexander Fleming, geneeskunde, wereld oorlog, Nobelprijs, onderzoek, Verenigd Koninkrijk, Oxford, ziekte, Penicillium, PCN, pen, antibiotica, Staphylococcus, infecties, bacteriën, bèta-lactam-antibioticum antibiotica, Penicillium ontwikkelde, syfilis, gangreen, tuberculose, bioloog, farmacoloog, 20e eeuw ontdekking, medische, geneesmiddelen, medicatie, geneesmiddel, gezondheid, ziekenhuis, zieken, patiënt, genezing, St Mary ziekenhuis, penicilline G, novocaïne penicilline, benzathine penicilline, penicilline V, bacteriële infecties, ontdekking beeldmateriaal, geneeskunde beeldmateriaal, ziekte beeldmateriaal, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Finnish :

penisilliini, 1928 Alexander Fleming, lääketiede, maailmansodan, Nobel-palkinnon, tutkimus, Yhdistynyt kuningaskunta, Oxford, sairaus, Penicillium, PCN, kynä, antibiootteja, Staphylococcus, infektioita, bakteerit, beetalaktaamiantibioottien, Penicillium tehdä, kuppa, kuolio, tuberkuloosi, biologi, aivotutkija 1900-luvun Discovery, lääketieteen, lääkkeiden, lääkitys, lääke, terveys, sairaala, sairas, potilas, healing, St Mary sairaala, penisilliini G, prokaiini penisilliini, bentsatiinibentsyylipenisilliiniä penisilliini, penisilliini V, bakteeri-infektioita, Discovery materiaalia, lääke materiaalia, sairauden materiaalia, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

French :

1928, pénicilline, Alexander Fleming, médecine, guerre mondiale, prix Nobel, Research, Royaume-Uni, Oxford, maladie, Penicillium, PCN, stylo, antibiotiques, Staphylococcus, infections, bactéries, antibiotiques bêta-lactamines, Penicillium notatum, la syphilis, la gangrène, la tuberculose, biologiste, pharmacologue, XXe siècle, découverte, médicaux, médicaments, médicaments, médicament, santé, hôpital, malade, patient, guérison, hôpital St Mary, pénicilline G, procaïne pénicilline, benzathine pénicilline, la pénicilline V, infections bactériennes, images de la découverte, images de médecine, images de la maladie, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

German :

1928, Penicillin, Alexander Fleming, Medizin, Weltkrieg, Nobelpreis, Research, Vereinigtes Königreich, Oxford, Krankheit, Penicillium, PCN, Stift, Antibiotika, Staphylococcus, Infektionen, Bakterien, Beta-Lactam-Antibiotika, Penicillium Notatum, Syphilis, Gangrän, Tuberkulose, Biologe, Biochemiker, 20. Jahrhundert, Entdeckung, Medizin, Arzneimittel, Medikamente, Medikament, Gesundheit, Krankenhaus, krank, Patient, Heilung, St. Mary Hospital, Penicillin G, Procain Penicillin, Benzathine Penicillin, Penicillin V, bakterielle Infektionen, Entdeckung-Filmmaterial, Medizin-Filmmaterial, Krankheit-Filmmaterial, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Haitian Creole :

1928, pelisilin, Alexander Fleming, medikaman, gè mondyal, pwi nobèl, rechèch ki fèt, nan peyi, Oxford, maladi, Penicillium, PCN, plim, manje antibiotik Staphylococcus, enfeksyon, bakteri, antibiotik sou non-lactam, Penicillium notatum, san gate, angrenn, la, biologist, pharmacologist, 20tyèm syèk, jwenn, medikal, médicaments, renmèd, medicament, sante, lopital, malad, moun ki malad, correcteur, lopital Sen Mary, pelisilin G, procaine pelisilin, benzathine pelisilin, pelisilin V, enfeksyon bakteri, jwenn, métrage, medikaman, métrage, maladi métrage, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Hebrew :

1928, פניצילין, אלכסנדר פלמינג, רפואה, מלחמת העולם, פרס נובל, מחקר, אנגליה, אוקספורד, מחלה, Penicillium PCN, עט, אנטיביוטיקה, סטפילוקוקוס, זיהומים, חיידקים, בטא אנטיביוטיקה lactam, Penicillium notatum, עגבת, נמק, שחפת, ביולוג, פרמקולוגית, המאה ה-20, גילוי רפואי, צמחי מרפא, תרופות, תרופה, בריאות, בית החולים, חולה, חולה, ריפוי, החולים סיינט מרי, פניצילין G, פניצילין procaine, benzathine פניצילין, פניצילין V, זיהומים חיידקיים, גילוי מדה, ברפואה קטעי, מחלה מדה, נורמן Heatley, הנס Schadewaldt, נתן ריד,

Hungarian :

1928-ban, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, orvostudomány, World War, Nobel-díjas, kutatás, Egyesült Királyság, Oxford, betegség, Penicillium, PCN, toll, antibiotikumok, Staphylococcus, fertőzések, baktériumok, béta-laktám antibiotikumok, Penicillin jelölés, szifilisz, üszkösödés, tuberkulózis, biológus, farmakológus, a huszadik század felfedezés, orvosi, gyógyszer, gyógyszer, gyógyszer, egészségügyi, kórházi, beteg, beteg, gyógyítás, St Mary kórházi, penicillin G, prokainnal penicillin, benzatin penicillin, penicillin V, bakteriális fertőzések, Discovery felvételeket, gyógyászat-felvételeket, betegség felvételeket, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Indonesian :

tahun 1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, obat, perang dunia, hadiah Nobel, penelitian, Inggris Raya, Oxford, penyakit, Penicillium, PCN, pena, antibiotik, Staphylococcus, infeksi, bakteri, antibiotik Beta-laktam, Penicillium notatum, sifilis, gangren, tuberkulosis, ahli biologi, farmakolog, abad ke-20 Penemuan medis, obat, obat, medikamen, Kesehatan, rumah sakit, sakit, pasien, penyembuhan, rumah sakit St Mary, penisilin G, procaine penisilin, benzathine penisilin, penisilin V, infeksi bakteri, rekaman penemuan, rekaman obat, penyakit rekaman, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Italian :

1928, penicillina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, guerra mondiale, premio Nobel, ricerca, Regno Unito, Oxford, malattia, Penicillium, NCP, penna, antibiotici, stafilococco, infezioni, batteri, antibiotici Beta-lattamici, Penicillium notatum, sifilide, cancrena, tubercolosi, biologo, farmacologo, XX secolo, scoperta medica, medicinale, farmaco, medicamento, salute, ospedale, malato, paziente, guarigione, St. Mary hospital, penicillina G, penicillina procaina, penicillina della benzatina, penicillina V, infezioni batteriche, filmati di scoperta, filmati di medicina, riprese di malattia, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Korean :

1928 년 페니실린, 알렉산더 플레밍, 의학, 세계 대전, 노벨상, 연구, 영국, 옥스포드, , 푸른 곰 팡이, PCN, , 항생제, 포도 상 구 균, 감염, 박테리아, 베타-락탐 항생제, 푸른 곰 팡이 notatum, 매 독, 괴 저, 결핵, 생물학자, 약리학, 20 세기 검색, 의료의 약, 약물의 약, 건강, 병원, 환자, 환자, 치유, 세인트 메리 병원, 페니실린 G, procaine 페니실린, benzathine 페니실린, 페니실린 V, 세균 감염, 디스커버리 영상 의학 영상, 병 영상, 노르만 Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, 네이 선 리드,

Lithuanian :

1928, penicilino, Alexander Fleming, medicina, pasaulinio karo, Nobelio premijos, mokslinių tyrimų, Jungtinė Karalystė, Oxford, ligos, Penicillium, PKN, rašiklis, antibiotikai, Staphylococcus, infekcijos, bakterijos, Beta-laktaminiams antibiotikams, Penicillium notatum, sifilis, gangrena, tuberkuliozės, biologas, farmakologo, 20-ojo amžiaus, atradimas, medicina, vaistų, vaistų, medikamentu, sveikatos, ligoninės, nedarbingumo, pacientas, gijimas, St Mary ligoninλ, penicilino G, prokainas penicilino, benzathine penicilino, penicilinas V, bakterinių infekcijų, atradimas filmuotą medžiagą, medicinos filmuotą medžiagą, ligos filmuotą medžiagą, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Norwegian :

1928 penicillin, Alexander Fleming, medisin, verdenskrig, Nobelprisen, forskning, Storbritannia, Oxford, sykdom, penicillin, PCN, penn, antibiotika, Staphylococcus, infeksjoner, bakterier, Beta-Laktam antibiotika, penicillin notat, syfilis, koldbrann, tuberkulose, biolog, farmakolog, 1900-tallet oppdagelsen, medisinsk, medisinsk, medisiner, legemidler, helse, sykehus, syke, pasient, healing, St Mary hospital, penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, penicillin V, bakterielle infeksjoner, Discovery opptak, medisin opptak, sykdom opptak, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Polish :

1928, penicyliny, Alexander Fleming, Medycyna, wojny, laureat Nagrody Nobla, badań naukowych, Wielka Brytania, Oxford, choroby, Penicillium, PCN, pióra, antybiotyki, Staphylococcus, zakażenia, bakterie, antybiotyki Beta laktamowe, Penicillium contaminatedââ, kiła, zgorzel, gruźlicy, biolog, farmakolog, XX wieku, odkrycie medycznych, lecznicze, leki, lek, zdrowie, Szpital, chorych, pacjenta, uzdrowienie, szpitala Najświętszej Maryi Panny, penicylina G, prokainy penicyliny, benzathine penicyliny, penicyliny V, zakażeń bakteryjnych, odkrycie materiału, materiał medycyna, choroby nagrania, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Portuguese :

1928, penicilina, Alexander Fleming, medicina, Guerra Mundial, prêmio Nobel, pesquisa, Reino Unido, Oxford, doença, Penicillium, PCN, caneta, antibióticos, Staphylococcus, infecções, bactérias, antibióticos Beta-lactâmicos, Penicillium notatum, gangrena, sífilis, tuberculose, biólogo, farmacologista, do século XX, descoberta, médico, medicamento, medicamento, medicament, saúde, hospital, doente, paciente, cura, hospital St. Mary, penicilina G, penicilina procaína, penicilina benzatina, penicilina V, infecções bacterianas, imagens de descoberta, imagens de medicina, imagens de doença, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Russian :

1928, пенициллин, Александр Флеминг, медицина, мировой войны, лауреат Нобелевской премии, исследования, Соединенное Королевство, Оксфорд, болезни, пеницилл, PCN, перо, антибиотики, стафилококков, инфекции, бактерии, Бета лактамные антибиотики, Penicillium notatum, сифилис, гангрена, туберкулез, биолог, фармаколог, XX века, Открытие, медицинские, лекарственные, лекарства, medicament, здравоохранения, больницы, болезни, пациента, исцеление, больницы Сент-Мэри, пенициллин G, прокаин пенициллин, benzathine пенициллин, пенициллин V, бактериальных инфекций, Открытие кадры, кадры медицины, болезни кадры, Норман Хитли, Ханс Schadewaldt, Натан Рид, ,

Slovak :

1928, penicilín, Alexander Fleming, medicína, svetovej vojny, nositeľ Nobelovej ceny, výskum, Veľká Británia, Oxford, choroby, Penicillium, PCN, pero, antibiotiká, Staphylococcus, infekcie, baktérie, Beta-laktámové antibiotiká, Penicillium notatum, syfilis, gangréna, tuberkulóza, biológ, farmakológ, objaviteľ, storočia, objav, lekárske, lieky, lieky, liek, zdravie, nemocnice, chorých, pacient, liečenie, St Mary nemocnice, penicilín G, prokaín penicilín, c penicilín, penicilín V, bakteriálne infekcie, objav zábery, medicína zábery, choroby zábery, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Slovenian :

1928, penicilin, Alexander Fleming, medicine, svetovni vojni Nobelovo nagrado, raziskave, Velika Britanija, Oxford, bolezni, Penicillium, PCN, pero, antibiotiki, Staphylococcus, okužbe, bakterije, betalaktamski antibiotiki, penicilin zapisovanje, sifilis, gangrene, tuberkuloza, biolog, farmakolog, stoletja, odkritje medicinske, zdravila, zdravila, medicament, zdravje, bolnišnice, bolan, bolnik, healing, bolnišnici St Mary, penicilin G, prokain penicilin, benzatin penicilin, penicilin V, bakterijske okužbe, odkritje posnetkov, medicine posnetkov, bolezni posnetkov, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Thai :

1928 ยาเพนนิซิลลิน อเล็กซานเดอร์เฟลมมิง ยา สงครามโลก รางวัลโนเบล วิจัย สหราชอาณาจักร ออกซ์ฟอร์ด เจ็บ ป่วย Penicillium, PCN ปากกา ยา ปฏิชีวนะ Staphylococcus ติดเชื้อ เชื้อแบคทีเรีย ยา Beta-lactam, Penicillium notatum ซิฟิลิสใน เนื้อตายเน่า วัณโรค นักชีววิทยา pharmacologist ศตวรรษที่ 20 ค้นพบ แพทย์ ยา ยา medicament สุขภาพ โรงพยาบาล ป่วย ผู้ป่วย รักษา โรงพยาบาลเซนต์แมรี ยาเพนนิซิลลิน G, procaine ยาเพนนิซิลลิน เบนซาทียา เพนนิซิลลิน ยาเพนนิซิลลิน V เชื้อแบคทีเรีย ค้นหาวิดีโอ ยาฟุต เจ็บป่วยฟุต นอร์แมน Heatley ฮันส์ Schadewaldt นาธาน Reed,

Turkish :

1928, penisilin, Alexander Fleming, tıp, Dünya Savaşı, Nobel Ödülü, araştırma, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Oxford, hastalık, Penicillium PCN, kalem, antibiyotikler, stafilokok, enfeksiyonlar, bakteri, Beta-laktam antibiyotikler, Penicillium notatum, frengi, kangren, tüberküloz, biyolog, farmakolojist, 20. yüzyıl, Discovery, tıbbi, tıbbi, ilaç, ilaç, sağlık, hastane, hasta, hasta, şifa, St Mary Hastanesi, penisilin G, prokain penisilin, Benzatin penisilin, penisilin V, bakteriyel enfeksiyonlar, keşif görüntüleri, Tıp görüntüleri, hastalık görüntüleri, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Ukrainian :

1928, пеніцилін, Александер Флемінг, медицина, світової війни, лауреат Нобелівської премії, дослідження, Сполучені Штати Америки, Оксфорд, хвороби, систематика, PCN, перо, антибіотики, стафілокок інфекції бактерій, бета лактамними антибіотиків, Penicillium notatum, сифіліс, гангрена, туберкульоз, біолог, фармаколог, 20-го століття, відкриття, медичних, лікувальних, ліки, застосування, здоров'я, лікарні, хворих, пацієнта, зцілення, лікарні Сент-Мері, пеніциліну G, новокаїн пеніцилін, benzathine пеніцилін, пеніцилін V, бактеріальних інфекцій, відкриття кадри, медицина кадри, хвороба кадри, Норман Хітлі, Ханс Schadewaldt, Натан рід,

Vietnamese :

năm 1928, penicillin, Alexander Fleming, thuốc men, thế giới chiến tranh, giải thưởng Nobel, nghiên cứu, Vương Quốc Anh, Oxford, bệnh tật, Penicillium, PCN, bút, thuốc kháng sinh, Staphylococcus, nhiễm trùng, vi khuẩn, Beta-lactam kháng sinh, Penicillium notatum, bệnh giang mai, hoại, bệnh lao, nhà sinh vật học, pharmacologist, thế kỷ 20, khám phá, y học, dược, thuốc, thuốc chữa bệnh, y tế, bệnh viện, bệnh, bệnh nhân, chữa bệnh, bệnh viện St Mary, penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, penicillin V, nhiễm trùng do vi khuẩn, khám phá cảnh, y học cảnh, bệnh tật cảnh, Norman Heatley, Hans Schadewaldt, Nathan Reed, ,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "The propaganda minister of the Empire prohibited the German press – and he could prohibit in a totalitarian state – to use the word penicillin. He wanted the people to know about a German invention, Domagk. He never wanted to admit that the English had found a very efficient agent, penicillin. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "Hitler’s doctor, Morell, wrote a study where he identified penicillin as a new medicine. This case study was immediately encrypted and only a few people got to read this document. So even doctors were not allowed to know about it. "

Schadewaldt, Hans

(Medicine Historian, penicillin) , speaking German:
-  "We only suspected that a new medicine had been discovered. They said that the Americans had something similar. In North Africa they found a sizeable quantity of penicillin in English warehouses. But this was only stolen material and not from their own production. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "On one side they try to kill as many people as possible – on the other side they have a medicine that could save the lives of those soldiers who would die without the medicine. This was a great military advantage. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "We started our research as the war broke out on 1st October 1939. "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "“He realised that the fungus contained some substance which stopped the development of the streptococcus. This was penicillin.” "

Heatley, Norman

(Penicillin researcher) , speaking English:
-  "At that time no-one took him seriously and soon they forgot his discovery. Surely nobody would remember this. If Fleming would not have recorded it, today we would not have penicillin. "




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15-11-2010 15:30:53

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