1989 - The end of the Cold War: the coming down of the Berlin wall (00:08:20)
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1989 - The end of the Cold War: the coming down of the Berlin wall

Rights-Managed, Editorial

Location and time:

Germany, Berlin, 09-11-1989


On June 27, 1989, Hungary removed its border restrictions with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East Germans escaped through Hungary . Mass demonstrations against the government in East Germany began in the fall of 1989. The leader of East Germany , Erich Honecker, resigned on October 18, 1989. He was replaced by a short-lived successor, Egon Krenz, a few days later. The travel restrictions for East Germans were lifted somewhat by the new government on November 9, 1989. After a misunderstanding, Günter Schabowski announced in a press conference, televised live on East German state TV, that all restrictions had been abandoned. Upon this news spreading, tens of thousands of people immediately went to the Wall, where they quickly became a major crowd control problem for the surprised and overwhelmed border guards. Many hectic telephone calls and much to and fro with the guards superiors ensued while still more people kept converging on the major crossing points. It eventually became clear that there was little way to hold back these huge numbers of East German citizens as the vastly outnumbered border guards had only been equipped for another day of regular duty. The masses could also not be convinced to turn back or calm down — they had heard of Mr. Schabowskis statement and they wanted it to be acted upon. Probably the only way to hold the crowds back would have been use of lethal force, but this would have meant massacring the countrys own citizens in huge numbers — which at that point the guards and authorities were simply not willing to do. In face of the escalating crowd safety situation the guards eventually just yielded, opening the access points and allowing people through with (at most) minimal identity verification checks. The ecstatic East Berliners were soon greeted by jubilant West Berliners on the other side in an all-out party atmosphere. November 9 is thus considered the date the Wall fell.

Other languages: show / hide

Bulgarian :

1989, Берлинската стена, Бранденбургската врата, ГДР, Ото фон Хабсбург, пикник от Сопрон, демонстрация, граждани на ГДР, Прага Федерална германското посолство, края на ГДР, Хонекер, стената е отворен, Горбачов, края на Студената война, слиза на Берлинската стена, Германия, Берлин, Ерих, Хонекер видео кадри, комунизма, Комунизма видео кадри, Ханс Дитрих Геншер, Йоахим Apitz, Егон Кренц, Гюнтер Schabowski, Райнер Eppelmann, ,

Danish :

1989, Berlinmurens fald, Brandenburger Tor, DDR, Otto von Habsburg, Picnic fra Sopron, demonstration, DDR borgere, Prag føderale tyske ambassade, udgangen af GDR, Honecker, væg er åben, Gorbatjov, slutningen af den kolde krig, kommer af Berlinmuren, Tyskland, Berlin, Erich, Honecker video optagelser, kommunisme, Kommunismen video-optagelser, Hans Dietrich Genscher, Joachim Apitz, Egon Krenz, Günter Schabowski, Rainer Eppelmann, ,

Dutch :

1989, Berlijnse muur, Brandenburger Tor, GDR, Otto von Habsburg, picknick van Sopron, demonstratie, GDR burgers, Praag federale Duitse ambassade, einde van de DDR, Honecker, muur is open, Gorbatsjov, einde van de koude oorlog, naar beneden van de Berlijnse muur, Duitsland, Berlijn, Erich, Honecker videobeelden, communisme, Communisme videobeelden, Hans Dietrich Genscher, Joachim Apitz, Egon Krenz, Günter Schabowski, Rainer Eppelmann, ,

Hindi :

1989, बर्लिन की दीवार, ब्रांडेनबर्ग गेट, GDR, Otto वॉन Habsburg, Sopron, प्रदर्शन, GDR नागरिकों, प्राग संघीय जर्मन दूतावास, से पिकनिक GDR, Honecker, दीवार के अंत खुला है, गोर्बाचेव, बर्लिन की दीवार, जर्मनी, बर्लिन, Erich, नीचे आ रही, शीत युद्ध की समाप्ति Honecker वीडियो फुटेज, साम्यवाद, साम्यवाद वीडियो फुटेज, हैंस Dietrich Genscher, Joachim Apitz, इगोन क्रेंज ने, Günter Schabowski, रेनर Eppelmann, ,

Korean :

1989 년 베를린 장벽, 브란덴부르크 문, GDR, 오토 폰 Habsburg, 피크닉 쇼프론, 데모, GDR 시민, 프라하 연방 독일 대사관에서에서 GDR, Honecker, 벽의 끝이 열려, 고르바초프, 베를린 장벽, 독일, 베를린, Erich, 내려 오고 냉전의 끝 Honecker 영상 공산주의 공산주의 영상, 한스 디트리히 Genscher, 요 아 킴 Apitz, Egon Krenz, 귄터 Schabowski, 라이너 Eppelmann,

Sound Bite and conversation:

Genscher, Hans Dietrich

(then Minister of Foreign Affairs) , speaking German:
-  "Essentially the situation was much worse than we imagined. The people were squeezed together. Many of them were looking at me questioning, others already might have lost their hope, since they had expected good news long before. And when the news arrived, oh well…, the situation explains itself, why people reacted that intensely…"

Genscher, Hans Dietrich

(then Minister of Foreign Affairs) , speaking German:
-  "I am here to announce that as of today, you are now free to go abroad."

Apitz, Joachim

(inhabitant of Leipzig) , speaking German:
-  "We were absolutely terrified. People were so close to each other, that everyone stepped on other people‘s feet, since this close distance gave us a feeling of security. With this scary feeling we started to shout: We don’t want violence, we are the people, Gorbi! Gorbi! Join us! "

Krenz, Egon

(President of the state commission of Eastern-Germany ) , speaking German:
-  "At that time, I thought that we must be able to make some connection to reforms in the Soviet Union - obviously with German specifications – and that we could reform East Germany in this manner.."

Schabowski, Günter

(Central Committee at the end of the cold war) , speaking German:
-  "By the end of the Central Committee meeting, Krenz gave me a paper and said: we discussed the case over and over again, and it is a regulation instead of a law, which takes effect immediately. I suggest to announce it tonight. I am sure, it will „blow up like a bomb“."

Schabowski, Günter

(Central Committee at the end of the cold war) , speaking German:
-  "People travelling privately abroad can make an application without any explanation, like having family relationships or such, as it used to be before. Permission will be granted promptly. "

Schabowski, Günter

(Central Committee at the end of the cold war) , speaking German:
-  "It was a blunder. I assume the people who composed the text wanted to write a closed deadline. Which would have been 4am. So at 4 in the morning, when everybody was still asleep, the radio was supposed to have announced that there was no obstacle for any travel abroad. "

Eppelmann, Rainer

(Civil rights activist at the end of the cold war) , speaking German:
-  "If I said that this night, for me, was like God helped us, then I can say: it was a miracle!"




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15-11-2010 12:15:41

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